Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and
(11th and final edition, 1913)
K. - L.
- A south-westerly wind which is said to blow
on the Nile for fifty days during March and
April. The simoom.
- The smallest anchor a yacht carries, used
for anchoring temporarily by a hawser or warp.
To kedge is to anchor by the kedge, or to carry
the kedge anchor out in a boat and warp ahead by
- Keg.-- A small cask, or breaker.
Keel.-- The fore-and-aft timber in a vessel to
which the frames and garboard strake are
Keel.-- An awkward-looking north-country boat
with one lugsail forward.
Keel Haul.-- A mode of punishment formerly in
use in the Royal Navy. A rope, passed from yardarm
to yardarm underneath the bottom of the ship. A man
with a weight attached to his feet was made fast to
one part of the rope and hauled from one yardarm to
the other, passing underneath the bottom of ship.
Keel hauling is never practised now, but in punning
language is sometimes referred to as "undergoing a
great hardship" of some kind.
Keelson or Kelson.-- An inside keel fitted over
the throats of the floors.
Keep her Full.-- When close hauled, an
admonition not to keep too close to the wind.
Keep her Off.-- An order to sail more off the
wind; to put the helm up. To keep off is to keep
away from the wind.
Keep your Luff.-- An admonition to keep close to
the wind. In match sailing, an order given when a
vessel is being overtaken by one coming up from
astern not to give way and allow the vessel to pass
to windward. It is an old maxim in close-hauled
sailing, "keep your luff and never look astern"
meaning that if you sail as close to the wind as
possible the overtaking vessel must take her
passage to leeward or risk a collision by trying to
force a passage to windward.
Kentledge.-- Rough pig iron used as ballast.
Ketch.-- A two-masted vessel, something like a
yawl, but with the mizen stepped ahead of the stern
post, and not abaft it as a yawl has it. Ketches
were formerly common in the Royal Navy for yachts
and bomb boats. A rig now much used for large
cruising yachts. It is handier than a schooner,
except in very large yachts. The Y.R.A. rules
enjoin that the distance between the masts shall be
half the length of water line, and the smaller sail
of the two gaff sails must be aft.
Kevel or Cavel.-- Large pieces of timber used
for belaying ropes to, such as the horizontal piece
which is bolted to the stanchions aft to belay the
main sheet to.
Key Model.-- A model made by horizontal layers
or vertical blocks, showing either the water lines
or vertical sections of a vessel.
Kit.-- A sailor's belongings in the way of
clothes, &c. which he carries in his bag or
keeps in his locker.
Kittiwake.-- A kind of seagull.
Knees.-- Pieces of timber or iron shaped thus -
L - used to strengthen particular parts of a ship.
A hanging knee is the one fitted under the beams; a
lodging knee is a knee fitted horizontally to the
beams and shelf, or to the mast partners or deck
beams. Floor knees are V-shaped, like
Knight Heads.-- Strong pieces of timber fitted
inside and close to the stem to bear the strain of
the bowsprit. Called also "bollard timbers." The
name is said to be derived from the windlass bitts,
the heads of which formerly were carved to
represent the heads of knights.
Knot.-- A division of the old log line bearing
the same relation to a nautical mile as the period
of the sand glass did to an hour. It is frequently
but erroneously used to indicate a sea mile or
nautical mile, therefore to say that a vessel has a
speed of 8 knots an hour is not correct. The
Admiralty mile is 6080ft, a statute mile is 5280ft.
A sea mile = 1.1515 statute mile.
KNOTS CONVERTED INTO FEET PER SECOND.
Knots, Hitches, Bends, and Splices.-- -
A Short Splice:
Unlay the strands to an equal distance from each
end of the rope. Intertwine the ends as shown in
Fig. 51, and draw all close up together. Take one
end of the rope in the left hand close up to the
unlaid strands, and with it the unlaid strands of
the other end of the rope; grasp these firmly, or,
if more convenient, stop them with a piece of yarn.
Take one of the strands (which are free), pass it
over the strand (belonging to the other end of the
rope) next to it, under the next strand and out,
and haul taut. Pass each of the three strands in
the same way, and then the three other strands, and
the splice will be made as shown in Fig. 52. The
operation can be repeated, or the ends can be
seized with spun yarn round the rope. It the ends
are stuck again, it is usual to taper each strand
so as to make a neater job of it.
An Eye Splice:
Unlay the strands of the rope and bring a part
of the rope between the strands so as to form an
eye (see Fig. 53.) Put one end through the unlaid
strand of the rope next to it ; the succeeding end
passes in an opposite direction over the strand and
through under the next strand. The remaining end
goes under the strand on the other side. Taper the
ends and work them through the strands again, and
Single Wall Knot (Fig. 54):
Unlay the end of a rope, hold it in the left
hand, take a strand A, and form into a bight,
holding it tight in the left hand to the standing
part of the rope. Pass B round A, C round B, and up
through the bight of A; haul taut. To crown, lay
one end over the top of the knot, lay the second
over that, the third over the second, and then
under the bight of the first.
Sheet Bend (see Fig. 55):
Useful for bending two ropes together, or
bending a rope to a cringle.
Bend for Hawser (Fig. 56).
Midshipman's Hitch (Fig. 57):
Is made by taking half a hitch with the end of a
rope A round the standing part B, C ; then taking
another turn through the same bight ; when jammed
together, another turn may be taken round C or
stopped to it. Used for putting a tail block on to
the fall of a tackle, shroud, &c.
For a "Rolling Hitch," used for the same
purpose, see Fig. 106.
Magnus Hitch (see Fig. 58).-- Useful for bending
ropes to spars, &c.
Bowline Knot (Fig. 59):
Take a convenient part of the end of a rope and
form the bight A, then the large bight B; pass the
end through the bight A, then round the standing
part F, and down through the bight A, and haul
Running Bowline Knot (Fig. 60):
After the bight A is made, take the bight B
round F (which is the standing part), then up
through A, round the standing part, and down
through A as before (see also "Clove Hitch,"
"Fisherman's Bend," "Timber Hitch," and "Blackwall
- A ship is said to labour when she pitches
and rolls heavily, causing her frame to
- Lacing.-- To pass a rope through the eyelets of
a sail and round a spar, &c.
Laid.-- The make of a rope, as cable laid,
hawser laid, single laid, laid with the sun,
Land.-- To go from a vessel to the shore ; also
to place anything. The outer edge of the plank of a
clincher-built boat. The term "land" is used to
mean the coast.
Land Boats.-- Fig. 61 shows the sail and
construction of the modern sand boat or land boat.
It has bicycle wheels and pneumatic tires. Such a
boat has been constructed by Messrs. Thorneycroft,
of Southampton. (See also "Sailing on Land.")
Land Fall.-- The point or part of a coast a
vessel first sights after being at sea. To make a
good landfall is to sight the laud at the point
calculated, "under the bowsprit end," as it is
Land Lubber.-- A person living on land and
unacquainted with the duties of a seaman; also an
awkward loutish country sort of person who on board
ship cannot get into the ways of a seaman.
Landsman.-- Men who have just joined a ship to
train as seamen.
Lane.-- A lane of wind is a current of air that
travels in a narrow space and does not spread. Also
ocean tracks for steamships. On board ship the
order to "Make a lane there," when a lot of men are
standing together in passages or gangways, is an
order for them to stand on one side so that others
Lanyards or Laniards.-- Hopes rove through dead
eyes, &c., by which shrouds and stays are
Larboard.-- The left side. In consequence of
frequent blunders occurring through "larboard"
being misunderstood for "starboard" or vice versa',
"port," as a distinctive sound, was introduced
instead of larboard.
Larbolins.-- The men composing the port watch.
Large.-- With the wind abeam or abaft the beam.
"She is sailing along large" means that the ship
has the wind abeam or between the beam and the
Lash.-- To lace, to bind together with a
Lashing.-- A lacing or rope to bind two spars
together, or sails to a spar, &c.
Lateen Sail.-- A large triangular sail, with the
luff bent to a yard. It has no gaff.
Lateral Resistance.-- The resistance a vessel
offers to being pressed broadside on through the
water. This resistance is assumed to be governed by
the area of the plane bounded by the waterline,
stem, keel, and rudder. (See the section on "Yacht
Launch.-- The largest boat carried by a ship. To
launch is to move an object, as "launch a spar
forward," to launch a ship.
Launching a Boat Across a Flat Shore.-- In
making a truck to launch or beach a boat on a sandy
or loose gravelly shore, the truck should run on
rollers in preference to wheels, as the latter will
sink into the sand or gravel, and render the
transit very laboursome.
Lay.-- Used by sailors instead of the neuter
verb "to lie" as "lay to" for lie to, "lay her
course" for lie her course, "lay up" for lie up,
&c. or "she lays S.W." for lies S.W. This use
of the active verb is sometimes justified by an
appeal to the well-known naval song
'Twas in Trafalgar's Bay
We saw the Frenchmen lay.
But, whether right or wrong, a sailor will never
be brought to say, "there she lies" for "there she
lays", or "she's going to lie up" for "she's going
to lay up."
Lay along the Land.-- When a vessel can just
keep along a weather shore close-hauled, or when
she lays along a lee shore.
Lay her Course.-- A vessel is said to lay her
course when sailing close-hauled, if her head
points nothing to leeward of it.
Laying Up.-- Dismantling a yacht after the
season's racing or cruising is over. It is always
much the best plan to have a mod dock dug for the
yacht to lie in, as then the bottom will not foul,
and if the vessel be coppered, she will haul out
quite clean; on the other band, if she lies afloat,
weeds and barnacles will accumulate on the bottom.
It is much the practice now to haul vessels up high
and dry during the winter months; this is an
excellent plan, and greatly assists in preserving
the hull. The ballast is removed, and the inside of
the hull below the platform coated with red lead,
black varnish, or a mixture of two-thirds Stockholm
tar to one-third of coal tar; black varnish or red
lead is, however, to be preferred. The mast may be
taken out before the vessel is hauled up, and with
the other spars housed. In case the mast be not
removed, all the rigging should be lifted over the
mast, and the yoke taken off as well, so that no
accumulation of damp may rot the masthead. The
copper should be scrubbed and coated with a mineral
oil such as paraffin. (See "Limber Boards.")
Lay in Oars.-- An order given to a boat's crew
to toss their oars and lay them in board; generally
curtly spoken" Oars." To "lay on your oars" is an
order for the men to cease rowing, but not to toss
their oars up; to rest on their oars.
Lay of a Rope.-- The way the strands of a rope
are laid ; right or left laid ; close laid,
Lay Off.-- To transfer the design of a vessel to
the mould loft full size. This is never written or
spoken "lie off."
Lay Out.-- To move out, as to lay out on a
yardarm, also to make a good forward and backward
reach in rowing.
Lazy Guy.-- The guy used to prevent the main
boom falling aboard when a vessel is rolling, with
the wind astern.
Lazy Tack.-- A running bight put on the tack
cringle of a topsail, and round a stay to keep the
sail from blowing away whilst it is hoisted,
Leach.-- The after up and down edge of a
A long weight or "sinker," of 7lb., 14lb., or
28lb. The line is "marked" thus :
- 2 a piece of leather in two strips.
- 3 ,, leather three strips.
- 5 ,, white calico.
- 7 ,, red bunting.
- 10 ,, leather with a hole in it.
- 13 ,, blue serge.
- 15 ,, white calico.
- 17 ,, red bunting.
- 20 ,, two knots.
- There are usually 5 fathoms beyond this unmarked.
In heaving the lead, if the vessel has headway, the
lead must be cast ahead, so that when it touches the
bottom the vessel is directly over it.
- If the first white mark is just awash when the
lead is on the bottom, the leadsman sings out, "By the
mark five." If it is less than five, say 4-3/4 he
sings out "Quarter less five," and not 4-3/4. If 1/4
or 1/2 more than five, he sings out "and a quarter
- There are no marks for 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14,
16, 18, and 19 fathoms, and these numbers are called
"deeps"; in sounding, the leadsman has to estimate the
depth, as, for instance, between 5 and 7 marks, and
will sing out, "By the deep 6."
- The deep-sea lead, pronounced "dipsey lead,"
weighs from 28lb. to 35lb., and has a much longer
line. Up to 20 fathoms it is marked the same as the
hand lead-at 30 fathoms 3 knots, at 40 fathoms 4
knots, and so on; the intermediate "fives" being
marked by a piece of leather or a small strand with a
knot in it; 100 fathoms is marked by a piece of
bunting, and then commence the knots:
- 1 knot = 10 fathoms, and so on. In sounding with
the deep-sea lead the vessel is usually hove to.
- Lead Ballast.--
- Bricks of lead cast from moulds to fit inside
the frames of a vessel without resting on the
plank. Sometimes lead has been run into a yacht in
a molten condition. When this has been done, the
frame and plank have been first smeared with wet
clay in order that the wood might not be injured.
The vessel should be well caulked before the lead
is run in. If molten lead is run into an iron or
steel plated vessel, fires should be lighted
underneath the keel to heat the plates, or
otherwise the plates may be injured. The objection
to running lead into a vessel is the extreme
difficulty of getting it out again.
- In casting a lead or iron keel, 1/8-in. per
foot is allowed each way for shrinking.
Lee.-- The opposite side to that from which the
- Lee Board.--
- A very old-fashioned contrivance to cheek
leeway. The board is usually trapeziform, and hung
from the gunwale on either side. When sailing to
windward it is dropped on the lee side to prevent
lee way, hence the term "lee board."
- FIG 62
- The board in length should be about one-fifth
the length of the boat, and at its broadest part
two. thirds its own length in breadth, and its
narrowest one-third its own length. If the board is
fixed to an open boat, the gunwale should be
strengthened at the point of attachment by a piece
of timber worked inside at the back of the boat's
timbers. For a boat 17ft. long this strengthening
piece should be at least 5ft. in length by 6in. in
depth, and be of 1-3/4in. thickness. The board will
be pivoted at its narrow end by an inch bolt; the
neck of the bolt which passes through the board
should be square, and a square iron plate should be
fitted each side of the board, through which plates
the bolt will pass.
- FIG 63.
- The round part of the bolt will pass through
the gunwale and strengthening piece; the bolt will
be tightened up by a thumb nut, and, to prevent the
latter working into the strengthening piece, it
will be best to have an iron plate inside over the
hole in the gunwale. The board should be made of
inch stuff, with two through bolts of 3/8-in
galvanised iron rod, or of 1/4-in iron plate.
- A good lee board (see Figs. 62 and 63) can be
made of a board about 16in. by 2ft., suspended over
the side of the boat (the top of the board being
level with the keel) by two irons, which reach up
the side over the gunwale, and are turned up along
the midship thwart, to which they are fastened by
means of two thumb screws; at the lower end two
screw bolts connect the irons with the board; if
necessary, one might be fitted on each side of the
- The advantages over the ordinary leeboard are
that it is not unsightly, is always held parallel
to the keel without straining the side, and two
turns of the thumb screws will disconnect it in a
moment from the boat. If these irons be fixed to
different thwarts, a long board might be fitted in
the same way; but a deep board is to be preferred.
- Lee, By the.--
- In running nearly before the wind, when a
vessel runs off her helm so much as to bring the
wind on the opposite quarter to which the boom is;
a very dangerous proceeding, as if there be no boom
guy a sudden gybe, or a gybe "all standing," may be
the result. For safety, the helm should be put down
the instant a vessel begins to run off. In match
sailing, in running for a mark, yachts are often
brought by the lee through a shift of wind, and
frequently they are kept so, if a spinnaker or
squaresail be set, and if near the mark, to save a
gybe, every precaution being of course taken to
prevent the main boom coming over, by hauling on
the guy or pressing against the boom; this risk,
however, should only be hazarded in very light
- Lee-going Tide.--
- The tide that is running to leeward in the
direction of the wind. The opposite to
weather-going tide, which see.
- Lee Helm.--
- The helm put to leeward to luff, or to keep a
vessel to or by the wind. Also synonymous with
slack helm. If the centre of effort of the sails is
much forward of the centre of lateral resistance,
the vessel will have a tendency to fall off, and
will require the helm to be put to leeward to keep
her close to wind. The tendency can be checked by
reducing the head sail, or by hardening in the
sheets of the after sail and easing the sheets of
the head sail. A vessel that requires lee helm will
be an awkward one, and in a heavy sea a dangerous
one to work to windward. The contrary to "weather
helm," which see.
- Lee Scuppers.--
- Inside the lee bulwarks by the scupper holes.
To be always in the lee scuppers is to be always in
- Lend a Hand Here.-- An order to a person to
- Let Fall.--
- In rowing an order for a boat's crew to drop
oars (after they have been on end) into the
rowlocks, tholes, or crutches.
- Let Go and Haul.--
- In tacking a square rigged vessel the order
given to let go the lee braces and haul in on the
- Let Her Feel the Weight of It.--
- An order to keep a vessel more off the wind,
and not allow her sails to shake. (See "Give Her
- Lewis.-- See "Mooring Rings."
- Life Belts.--
- Appliances for support in the water. The cork
life belts of the National Lifeboat Institution
(6s. each), John-street, Adelphi, are the most
- Life Buoy.--
- Usually a painted canvas ring stuffed with
solid cork. When in the water, by placing the hands
on the buoy it turns up over the head. The arms are
then put through it, and it forms a fine support
under the armpits and, of course, encircling the
body. This is a great improvement on the
old-fashioned ball buoy, with rope bights on it. A
life buoy should have an outside diameter of 30in.,
and contain from 12lb. to 15lb. of solid cork, and
float for twenty-four hours whilst suspending 32lb.
of iron. Cork shavings, granulated cork, &c.,
should not be used.
- Light Eye.--
- A bright white look in the sky above the
horizon, sometimes betokening that a breeze may be
expected from such a quarter.
- The lights which all vessels must exhibit
between sundown and sunrise. (See "Side Light.")
The modern type of paraffin lamp will burn through
a long night without any attention being required
to the wick, and except during very strong winds
the ventilation does not require any alteration,
and owing to the use of good reflectors and
dioptric lenses the candlepower for a given size of
lamp has been enormously increased.
- FIG 64
- PARAFFIN SIDE LIGHT WITH PRISMATIC LENS
- The dioptric lens was copied from that used in
lighthouses, and its function is to collect all the
rays of light from the reflector and burner and
throw them out (within the prescribed bearings) in
one horizontal plane, just high enough above the
sea level to catch the eyes of those navigating
- Captain du Boulay says: "This condensing of all
the light rays into a horizontal plane is all very
well for steamers, but when sailing vessels are
moving along steadily heeled over by their canvas,
the plane of illumination is heeled over also, so
that although right ahead perhaps the full
candlepower is obtained, yet on certain bearings
the intensity of the light will diminish and may be
almost totally obscured, thus infringing the Board
of Trade rule which clearly states that all
shiplights are to show an unbroken light over a
prescribed arc of the horizon.
- The dioptric lens, then, confining as it does
the illumination to one horizontal plane, is all
very well for fixed lights on shore and for steamer
lights, and it may be used for riding lights on
sailing vessels, but it is not so suitable for side
lights on the latter craft, for directly they lay
over in a breeze the plane of illumination becomes
inclined ; so that on certain bearings the light
may be almost invisible at the sea level owing to
the eye of the observer being either above or below
the plane, and a better form of lens for these
lights is that known as the prismatic, where the
surface of the globular glass screen is cut into a
number of concave hexagon shaped facets.
- With a view to getting some authentic
information on this question and other similar
matters some very interesting experiments were
carried out in 1902 on the Government ranges on the
sands at Shoeburyness with various ship-lights as
made by some of the leading manufacturers, the
intensity and visibility of each light being
carefully ascertained on various bearings, and
especially so when the light was heeled over
laterally to 5û, 10û, 15û, and
20û, and the experience thus gained has had
very beneficial results on the modern development
of the lamps used on vessels.
- In order to get over this difficulty of the
heeling effect, whilst not sacrificing the many
advantages of the dioptric lens, it is customary in
the larger-sized vessels to mount the lamps in
gimbals inside a sort of miniature lighthouse or
turret, so that the plane of illumination is kept
horizontal in spite of the movements of the hull,
and Messrs Chance, of Birmingham, make a specialty
of this type of lamp with lenses on true dioptric
lines of lighthouse glass, accurately curved,
ground, and polished, and this is probably the last
word in ship-lights at the present moment, where
there is ample room for the turrets on board.
- For smaller vessels, or where expense has to be
considered, the dioptric lens is generally
supplanted by the prismatic lens, that is to say,
the surface of the glass is cut into a number of
concave hexagon-shaped facets, the result being to
enormously increase the apparent size of the light,
whilst the illumination is not confined to one
- Limber Boards.--
- Plank covering the floors of a vessel near the
keelson. In yachts built with iron knee floors it
is a common practice to fill up all cavities along
the keel or hogging piece, fore deadwood and apron,
and deadwood aft, with cement, after coating the
wood with Stockholm tar.
- Limber Clearer.--
- A small chain which is kept rove through the
limber holes in the floors at the side of the
keelson, to allow the bilge water to flow freely to
the pumps; occasionally the chain is worked
backwards and forwards to clear the holes. This
contrivance is seldom met with in yachts.
- Line.-- Formerly a general name for a rope or
- Liner.-- An old line of battle ship. Now used
to describe a large passenger ship.
- A general term applied to the drawing or design
of a vessel as depicted by fore-and-aft lines and
cross sections. A vessel is said to have "fine
lines" when she is very sharp fore-and-aft.
- A vessel is said to list when from some cause
-- shifting of ballast or cargo or weights -- she
- A narrow strip of plank, usually 4in. in width,
cut out of the plank of a ship throughout her whole
length, in order that the condition of her frames
or timbers may be examined.
- A piece of rope with a thimble eye spliced in
one end, used in setting square sails; sometimes
the lizard is of two or more parts with a thimble
in each, the whole being spliced into one
- Lloyd's is an association of marine
underwriters in the City of London.
- Its name is derived from a Coffee House kept by
Mr. Edward Lloyd in Tower Street in the 17th
century, where underwriters met to transact
business. In 1692 Lloyd's Coffee House was removed
from Tower Street to Lombard Street; and in 1774,
Lloyd's left the Coffee House in Lombard Street for
premises in the Royal Exchange, where it has since
remained. The wars which lasted from 1775, with but
short pauses till 1815, tended to attract marine
insurance to Great Britain from all parts of the
world, and raised Lloyd's to the high position it
has since held.
- Candidates for election as members are required
to satisfy the Committee as to their means, and in
all cases to deposit in the names of trustees a sum
of not less than £5000, as additional security
for liabilities incurred on account of marine and
transport risks. The aggregate amount thus placed
at the disposal of the Committee of Lloyd's is very
large, but in no way represents the total capital
possessed by the Underwriting Members of
- The deposits and guarantees provided by
Underwriting Members of the Corporation as security
for their underwriting liabilities exceed
- Lloyd's is also an immense organisation for the
collection and distribution of maritime
intelligence, which is published daily in "Lloyd's
List." This paper, originally established in 1696
as "Lloyd's News," dates from 1726, and is the
oldest newspaper in Europe with the exception of
the "London Gazette." The Intelligence Department
has developed continually under the influence of
steam and electricity, and this process keeps pace
with the opening of new ports and increased means
of communication. The information is supplied by
Lloyd's Agents on every coast in the world, who, in
written lists, or by telegram, report the arrival
and departure of, and casualties to, vessels within
their districts. In this connection the value of
Lloyd's Signal Stations is very great, not only to
underwriters but also to merchants and shipowners,
as it is frequently an advantage that a vessel
should be intercepted off the coast and ordered to
its pert of destination. Shipowners in this way
often have the earliest intimation of the arrival
of their ships. Vessels arriving off outlying
signal stations often bring important intelligence
as to derelicts and wrecks passed on their voyages,
as well as information of vessels in distress
requiring assistance, and overdue vessels arriving
on long voyages are reported at these stations. Not
one vessel in ten bound to ports in the United
Kingdom from distant ports arrives at her terminal
port without first being reported from one of
Lloyd's Signal Stations. At some of these stations
wireless telegraphy apparatus has been
- Lloyd's Agent.--
- Lloyd's has Agents in all parts of the world.
The duties of these Agents so far as they concern
yacht owners may be broadly defined as
- In case of shipwreck to render to masters of
vessels any advice or assistance they may
- Lloyd's call attention to the fact that, in all
cases when owners have to make claims for loss or
average on their policies, it very much facilitates
settlement by their underwriters if they report
immediately to Lloyd's Agent at the port of
arrival, with a view to his conducting the
necessary surveys and assessing the damage
- Lloyd's Agent when called upon to intervene in
case of damage to vessels with a view of granting a
certificate of sea damage, has the power to appoint
a surveyor, who should sign his certificate as
"Surveyor to Lloyd's Agent," and in every ease the
signature of the surveyor must be authenticated by
that of Lloyd's Agent. In case of damage to a yacht
the Committee of Lloyd's prefer that the choice of
a surveyor should fall upon the Surveyor to Lloyd's
Register whenever there is one stationed at the
- It is also the duty of Lloyd's Agent to report
by telegraph direct to Lloyd's (Royal Exchange,
London. E.C.) all casualties which may occur to
vessels within his district.
- It will be seen that the Surveyor to Lloyd's
Register is employed by preference to make, on
behalf of Lloyd's Agent, surveys on ships when
Lloyd's Agent is called upon by ship. owners or
others interested to conduct a survey of a ship or
to certify to damage to vessels.
- Lloyd's Register.--
- This Society (71, Fenchurch St., E.C.) must not
be confused with Lloyd's. The Society-whose proper
title is LLOYD'S REGISTER OF BRITISH AND FOREIGN
SHIPPING -- is a Society voluntarily maintained by
the shipping community. Its principal functions so
far as yachtsmen arc concerned are :--
- (a) The survey and classification of yachts,
&c. (both new and old) and the yachts of the
International Rating classes.
- (b) The annual publication of a Register of
Yachts, a Register of American Yachts, Rules for
the Construction of Ships and Machinery and Yachts,
&c. The two Registers of Yachts contain, in
addition to the names, classes, and detailed
information relating to yachts classed by the
Society, the names, dimensions, &c. of British
and foreign yachts, and of American yachts
respectively, together with much other matter
relating to yachts and yachting and particulars of
all the Racing Yachts of the International
- (c) The supervision of the testing of anchors
and chains under the provisions of the Chain Cables
and Anchors Acts.
- (d) The supervision of the testing, at the
manufactories, of the steel intended or use in the
construction of ships and boilers.
- (e) The survey of refrigerating machinery and
- Lloyd's Surveyor.-- The duties of a Surveyor to
Lloyd's Register may be briefly defined as follows
- 1. To carry out and report to the Committee all
surveys (during construction and afterwards)
required on vessels, or their engines and hollers,
under the Society's rules, with a view to the
classification of vessels in the Register Book, or
the maintenance of their classification
- 2. In cases of damage (whether to classed or
unclassed vessels) to hold special surveys at the
request, or with the consent, of the owners,
masters, or agents, to ascertain the extent of
damage and to recommend the necessary repairs.
- 3. To carry out tests of steel, large forgings
and castings, &c at manufactories.
- 4. To make measurements and surveys (on both
classed and unclassed vessels).
- Under the first and last heads the Yacht Owner
will often find it a great advantage to employ a
Lloyd's Surveyor whose services (to examine a yacht
and make a fair report upon her condition or
construction) can always he obtained for a moderate
fee upon application to the Secretary of Lloyd's
Register, 71, Fenchurch Street, London, E.C. (See
also "Yacht Register.")
Lead-water-line.-- The line of flotation when a
vessel is properly laden or ballasted.
- Lead-water Section.-- The horizontal plane at
the line of flotation.
- Lob Sided.-- Larger or heavier on one side than
on the other.
- Locker.-- A small cabin, or cupboard, or cavity
to stow articles in.
- Log Board or Log Slate.--
- The slate on which the hourly occurrences in
navigating a ship-her speed, canvas, courses, the
strength of wind, direction of wind, and general
condition of weather-are set down.
- Log Line and Ship.--
- An ancient contrivance for testing the speed of
a ship. The line is attached to a board (termed the
ship), and is marked for knots every 47ft. 3in. but
an allowance is made for the following wake).
According as the number of knots which run out in
28sec. by the sand glass, so is the speed of the
vessel. There is a drift of some feet between the
log ship and the first knot, the glass being turned
as the first knot takes the water. number of knots
run out in the 28sec. marks The the speed of the
vessel. Massey's or Walker's log are now constantly
towed, but the log line and ship are regularly used
on hoard large steamers. (See "Harpoon Log.'')
- Log Official.-- See "Official Log."
- Long Beat.-- A ship's launch; usually carvel
- Long Leg and a Short One.-- In heating to
windward, when a vessel can sail nearer her
- FIG 65
- intended course on one tack than another. Thus,
say her course is E and the wind S.E. by E. she
would lie E. by N. one tack, which would he the
long leg and S. by E. on the other, which would be
the short leg. (Fig. 65.)
- Long Shore.-- A contraction of along
- Long Tackle Blocks.--
- A double block with one sheave above the other,
as a fiddle block, which see. Used for the runner
- The direction a vessel points when sailing by
the wind. As, she "looks high," "looks up well,"
"looks a high course " &c.
- Lookout, The.--
- The men stationed on the bow, &c. to watch
the approach of other ships or to seek the land,
- Loose.-- Adrift; to unloose, to unfurl ; to
loose tyers of a sail, &c.
- Lose her Way.--
- Said of a vessel when she loses motion or
gradually comes to a stop.
- Lose His Number at Mess.-- (Slang) To die.
- To cause a thing to descend-as to "lower the
topsail," &c. An order given to ease up
halyards, as "Lower," "Lower away!"
- Lower Masts.-- The masts that are next the
- Lubber's Hole.--
- The opening in the top of a square rigged
vessel, by which seamen get into the top instead of
by the futtock shrouds.
- Lubber's Point.--
- The black line or stroke in the front part of a
compass basin, by which the direction of a vessel's
head is told. The lubber's point is always in a
line parallel with the vessel's centre-line.
- Lucky Puff.-- A puff that "frees" a vessel in
close hauled sailing.
- To come nearer the wind. To " spring your luff"
is to luff all the ship is capable of, without
making her sails shake.
- Luff and Touch Her.--
- To bring the vessel so near the wind that the
head sails begin to shake a little.
- Luff of a Sail.-- The weather edge of a sail.
(See "Weather Cloth.")
- Luff Tackle.--
- A tackle composed of a single and double block,
the standing part of the rope being fast to the
- Luff upon Luff.--
- One luff tackle hitched to the fall of another
so as to make a double purchase.
- A vessel rigged with lug sails like the fishing
boats of this country and France.
- Lug-Sail Boat.-- A boat with a lug sail. (See
- Term used in a racing schooner for the sheet
attached to the clew of the foresail. In a modern
racing schooner the foresail sheet is on the boom
of the foresail in the usual way and the foresail
sheet runs on a horse on deck forward of the
mainmast, but the clew and leech of the foresail
extend beyond the fore boom end, abaft the
mainmast, and an extra sheet called the " log.
sheet" is attached to the clew of the sail and is
bowsed down or hauled well aft, being run through a
fair lead on deck on the lee quarter. It is sheeted
home by means of a double tackle.
- When a vessel is left unsupported at the bow,
stern, or amidships, so that she makes a sudden
dive forward, or by the stern, or a heavy weather
or lee roll.
- Stoppings of white lead, putty, tar, varnish,
&c. for seams and joins in tanks, &c.;
sometimes used with a strip of canvas as a kind of
- Lying To.-- The condition of a ship when hove
to. (See "Trying" and "Lay.")
© 2000 Craig O'Donnell
May not be reproduced without my permission.
Go scan your own damn dictionary.