Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and Architecture

(11th and final edition, 1913)

K. - L.

A south-westerly wind which is said to blow on the Nile for fifty days during March and April. The simoom.


The smallest anchor a yacht carries, used for anchoring temporarily by a hawser or warp. To kedge is to anchor by the kedge, or to carry the kedge anchor out in a boat and warp ahead by it.
Keg.-- A small cask, or breaker.

Keel.-- The fore-and-aft timber in a vessel to which the frames and garboard strake are fastened.

Keel.-- An awkward-looking north-country boat with one lugsail forward.

Keel Haul.-- A mode of punishment formerly in use in the Royal Navy. A rope, passed from yardarm to yardarm underneath the bottom of the ship. A man with a weight attached to his feet was made fast to one part of the rope and hauled from one yardarm to the other, passing underneath the bottom of ship. Keel hauling is never practised now, but in punning language is sometimes referred to as "undergoing a great hardship" of some kind.

Keelson or Kelson.-- An inside keel fitted over the throats of the floors.

Keep her Full.-- When close hauled, an admonition not to keep too close to the wind.

Keep her Off.-- An order to sail more off the wind; to put the helm up. To keep off is to keep away from the wind.

Keep your Luff.-- An admonition to keep close to the wind. In match sailing, an order given when a vessel is being overtaken by one coming up from astern not to give way and allow the vessel to pass to windward. It is an old maxim in close-hauled sailing, "keep your luff and never look astern" meaning that if you sail as close to the wind as possible the overtaking vessel must take her passage to leeward or risk a collision by trying to force a passage to windward.

Kentledge.-- Rough pig iron used as ballast.

Ketch.-- A two-masted vessel, something like a yawl, but with the mizen stepped ahead of the stern post, and not abaft it as a yawl has it. Ketches were formerly common in the Royal Navy for yachts and bomb boats. A rig now much used for large cruising yachts. It is handier than a schooner, except in very large yachts. The Y.R.A. rules enjoin that the distance between the masts shall be half the length of water line, and the smaller sail of the two gaff sails must be aft.

Kevel or Cavel.-- Large pieces of timber used for belaying ropes to, such as the horizontal piece which is bolted to the stanchions aft to belay the main sheet to.

Key Model.-- A model made by horizontal layers or vertical blocks, showing either the water lines or vertical sections of a vessel.

Kit.-- A sailor's belongings in the way of clothes, &c. which he carries in his bag or keeps in his locker.

Kittiwake.-- A kind of seagull.

Knees.-- Pieces of timber or iron shaped thus - L - used to strengthen particular parts of a ship. A hanging knee is the one fitted under the beams; a lodging knee is a knee fitted horizontally to the beams and shelf, or to the mast partners or deck beams. Floor knees are V-shaped, like breast-hooks.

Knight Heads.-- Strong pieces of timber fitted inside and close to the stem to bear the strain of the bowsprit. Called also "bollard timbers." The name is said to be derived from the windlass bitts, the heads of which formerly were carved to represent the heads of knights.

Knot.-- A division of the old log line bearing the same relation to a nautical mile as the period of the sand glass did to an hour. It is frequently but erroneously used to indicate a sea mile or nautical mile, therefore to say that a vessel has a speed of 8 knots an hour is not correct. The Admiralty mile is 6080ft, a statute mile is 5280ft. A sea mile = 1.1515 statute mile.



Knots, Hitches, Bends, and Splices.-- -

A Short Splice:

Unlay the strands to an equal distance from each end of the rope. Intertwine the ends as shown in Fig. 51, and draw all close up together. Take one end of the rope in the left hand close up to the unlaid strands, and with it the unlaid strands of the other end of the rope; grasp these firmly, or, if more convenient, stop them with a piece of yarn. Take one of the strands (which are free), pass it over the strand (belonging to the other end of the rope) next to it, under the next strand and out, and haul taut. Pass each of the three strands in the same way, and then the three other strands, and the splice will be made as shown in Fig. 52. The operation can be repeated, or the ends can be seized with spun yarn round the rope. It the ends are stuck again, it is usual to taper each strand so as to make a neater job of it.


An Eye Splice:

Unlay the strands of the rope and bring a part of the rope between the strands so as to form an eye (see Fig. 53.) Put one end through the unlaid strand of the rope next to it ; the succeeding end passes in an opposite direction over the strand and through under the next strand. The remaining end goes under the strand on the other side. Taper the ends and work them through the strands again, and serve.


Single Wall Knot (Fig. 54):

Unlay the end of a rope, hold it in the left hand, take a strand A, and form into a bight, holding it tight in the left hand to the standing part of the rope. Pass B round A, C round B, and up through the bight of A; haul taut. To crown, lay one end over the top of the knot, lay the second over that, the third over the second, and then under the bight of the first.


Sheet Bend (see Fig. 55):

Useful for bending two ropes together, or bending a rope to a cringle.


Bend for Hawser (Fig. 56).


Midshipman's Hitch (Fig. 57):

Is made by taking half a hitch with the end of a rope A round the standing part B, C ; then taking another turn through the same bight ; when jammed together, another turn may be taken round C or stopped to it. Used for putting a tail block on to the fall of a tackle, shroud, &c.

For a "Rolling Hitch," used for the same purpose, see Fig. 106.


Magnus Hitch (see Fig. 58).-- Useful for bending ropes to spars, &c.


Bowline Knot (Fig. 59):

Take a convenient part of the end of a rope and form the bight A, then the large bight B; pass the end through the bight A, then round the standing part F, and down through the bight A, and haul taut.

FIG 60.

Running Bowline Knot (Fig. 60):

After the bight A is made, take the bight B round F (which is the standing part), then up through A, round the standing part, and down through A as before (see also "Clove Hitch," "Fisherman's Bend," "Timber Hitch," and "Blackwall Hitch").




A ship is said to labour when she pitches and rolls heavily, causing her frame to work. 
Lacing.-- To pass a rope through the eyelets of a sail and round a spar, &c.

Laid.-- The make of a rope, as cable laid, hawser laid, single laid, laid with the sun, &c.

Land.-- To go from a vessel to the shore ; also to place anything. The outer edge of the plank of a clincher-built boat. The term "land" is used to mean the coast.

Land Boats.-- Fig. 61 shows the sail and construction of the modern sand boat or land boat. It has bicycle wheels and pneumatic tires. Such a boat has been constructed by Messrs. Thorneycroft, of Southampton. (See also "Sailing on Land.")

Land Fall.-- The point or part of a coast a vessel first sights after being at sea. To make a good landfall is to sight the laud at the point calculated, "under the bowsprit end," as it is termed.

Land Lubber.-- A person living on land and unacquainted with the duties of a seaman; also an awkward loutish country sort of person who on board ship cannot get into the ways of a seaman.

Landsman.-- Men who have just joined a ship to train as seamen.

Lane.-- A lane of wind is a current of air that travels in a narrow space and does not spread. Also ocean tracks for steamships. On board ship the order to "Make a lane there," when a lot of men are standing together in passages or gangways, is an order for them to stand on one side so that others can pass.

Lanyards or Laniards.-- Hopes rove through dead eyes, &c., by which shrouds and stays are setup.

Larboard.-- The left side. In consequence of frequent blunders occurring through "larboard" being misunderstood for "starboard" or vice versa', "port," as a distinctive sound, was introduced instead of larboard.

FIG 61.

Larbolins.-- The men composing the port watch. (See "Starbolins.")

Large.-- With the wind abeam or abaft the beam. "She is sailing along large" means that the ship has the wind abeam or between the beam and the quarter.

Lash.-- To lace, to bind together with a rope.

Lashing.-- A lacing or rope to bind two spars together, or sails to a spar, &c.

Lateen Sail.-- A large triangular sail, with the luff bent to a yard. It has no gaff.

Lateral Resistance.-- The resistance a vessel offers to being pressed broadside on through the water. This resistance is assumed to be governed by the area of the plane bounded by the waterline, stem, keel, and rudder. (See the section on "Yacht Architecture")

Launch.-- The largest boat carried by a ship. To launch is to move an object, as "launch a spar forward," to launch a ship.

Launching a Boat Across a Flat Shore.-- In making a truck to launch or beach a boat on a sandy or loose gravelly shore, the truck should run on rollers in preference to wheels, as the latter will sink into the sand or gravel, and render the transit very laboursome.

Lay.-- Used by sailors instead of the neuter verb "to lie" as "lay to" for lie to, "lay her course" for lie her course, "lay up" for lie up, &c. or "she lays S.W." for lies S.W. This use of the active verb is sometimes justified by an appeal to the well-known naval song

'Twas in Trafalgar's Bay

We saw the Frenchmen lay.

But, whether right or wrong, a sailor will never be brought to say, "there she lies" for "there she lays", or "she's going to lie up" for "she's going to lay up."

Lay along the Land.-- When a vessel can just keep along a weather shore close-hauled, or when she lays along a lee shore.

Lay her Course.-- A vessel is said to lay her course when sailing close-hauled, if her head points nothing to leeward of it.

Laying Up.-- Dismantling a yacht after the season's racing or cruising is over. It is always much the best plan to have a mod dock dug for the yacht to lie in, as then the bottom will not foul, and if the vessel be coppered, she will haul out quite clean; on the other band, if she lies afloat, weeds and barnacles will accumulate on the bottom. It is much the practice now to haul vessels up high and dry during the winter months; this is an excellent plan, and greatly assists in preserving the hull. The ballast is removed, and the inside of the hull below the platform coated with red lead, black varnish, or a mixture of two-thirds Stockholm tar to one-third of coal tar; black varnish or red lead is, however, to be preferred. The mast may be taken out before the vessel is hauled up, and with the other spars housed. In case the mast be not removed, all the rigging should be lifted over the mast, and the yoke taken off as well, so that no accumulation of damp may rot the masthead. The copper should be scrubbed and coated with a mineral oil such as paraffin. (See "Limber Boards.")

Lay in Oars.-- An order given to a boat's crew to toss their oars and lay them in board; generally curtly spoken" Oars." To "lay on your oars" is an order for the men to cease rowing, but not to toss their oars up; to rest on their oars.

Lay of a Rope.-- The way the strands of a rope are laid ; right or left laid ; close laid, &c.

Lay Off.-- To transfer the design of a vessel to the mould loft full size. This is never written or spoken "lie off."

Lay Out.-- To move out, as to lay out on a yardarm, also to make a good forward and backward reach in rowing.

Lazy Guy.-- The guy used to prevent the main boom falling aboard when a vessel is rolling, with the wind astern.

Lazy Tack.-- A running bight put on the tack cringle of a topsail, and round a stay to keep the sail from blowing away whilst it is hoisted,

Leach.-- The after up and down edge of a sail.



A long weight or "sinker," of 7lb., 14lb., or 28lb. The line is "marked" thus :

2 a piece of leather in two strips.
3 ,, leather three strips.
5 ,, white calico.
7 ,, red bunting.
10 ,, leather with a hole in it.
13 ,, blue serge.
15 ,, white calico.
17 ,, red bunting.
20 ,, two knots.
There are usually 5 fathoms beyond this unmarked. In heaving the lead, if the vessel has headway, the lead must be cast ahead, so that when it touches the bottom the vessel is directly over it.
If the first white mark is just awash when the lead is on the bottom, the leadsman sings out, "By the mark five." If it is less than five, say 4-3/4 he sings out "Quarter less five," and not 4-3/4. If 1/4 or 1/2 more than five, he sings out "and a quarter five," &c.
There are no marks for 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 19 fathoms, and these numbers are called "deeps"; in sounding, the leadsman has to estimate the depth, as, for instance, between 5 and 7 marks, and will sing out, "By the deep 6."
The deep-sea lead, pronounced "dipsey lead," weighs from 28lb. to 35lb., and has a much longer line. Up to 20 fathoms it is marked the same as the hand lead-at 30 fathoms 3 knots, at 40 fathoms 4 knots, and so on; the intermediate "fives" being marked by a piece of leather or a small strand with a knot in it; 100 fathoms is marked by a piece of bunting, and then commence the knots:
1 knot = 10 fathoms, and so on. In sounding with the deep-sea lead the vessel is usually hove to.
Lead Ballast.--
Bricks of lead cast from moulds to fit inside the frames of a vessel without resting on the plank. Sometimes lead has been run into a yacht in a molten condition. When this has been done, the frame and plank have been first smeared with wet clay in order that the wood might not be injured. The vessel should be well caulked before the lead is run in. If molten lead is run into an iron or steel plated vessel, fires should be lighted underneath the keel to heat the plates, or otherwise the plates may be injured. The objection to running lead into a vessel is the extreme difficulty of getting it out again.
In casting a lead or iron keel, 1/8-in. per foot is allowed each way for shrinking.

Lee.-- The opposite side to that from which the wind blows.

Lee Board.--
A very old-fashioned contrivance to cheek leeway. The board is usually trapeziform, and hung from the gunwale on either side. When sailing to windward it is dropped on the lee side to prevent lee way, hence the term "lee board."
FIG 62
The board in length should be about one-fifth the length of the boat, and at its broadest part two. thirds its own length in breadth, and its narrowest one-third its own length. If the board is fixed to an open boat, the gunwale should be strengthened at the point of attachment by a piece of timber worked inside at the back of the boat's timbers. For a boat 17ft. long this strengthening piece should be at least 5ft. in length by 6in. in depth, and be of 1-3/4in. thickness. The board will be pivoted at its narrow end by an inch bolt; the neck of the bolt which passes through the board should be square, and a square iron plate should be fitted each side of the board, through which plates the bolt will pass.


FIG 63.
The round part of the bolt will pass through the gunwale and strengthening piece; the bolt will be tightened up by a thumb nut, and, to prevent the latter working into the strengthening piece, it will be best to have an iron plate inside over the hole in the gunwale. The board should be made of inch stuff, with two through bolts of 3/8-in galvanised iron rod, or of 1/4-in iron plate.
A good lee board (see Figs. 62 and 63) can be made of a board about 16in. by 2ft., suspended over the side of the boat (the top of the board being level with the keel) by two irons, which reach up the side over the gunwale, and are turned up along the midship thwart, to which they are fastened by means of two thumb screws; at the lower end two screw bolts connect the irons with the board; if necessary, one might be fitted on each side of the boat.
The advantages over the ordinary leeboard are that it is not unsightly, is always held parallel to the keel without straining the side, and two turns of the thumb screws will disconnect it in a moment from the boat. If these irons be fixed to different thwarts, a long board might be fitted in the same way; but a deep board is to be preferred.


Lee, By the.--
In running nearly before the wind, when a vessel runs off her helm so much as to bring the wind on the opposite quarter to which the boom is; a very dangerous proceeding, as if there be no boom guy a sudden gybe, or a gybe "all standing," may be the result. For safety, the helm should be put down the instant a vessel begins to run off. In match sailing, in running for a mark, yachts are often brought by the lee through a shift of wind, and frequently they are kept so, if a spinnaker or squaresail be set, and if near the mark, to save a gybe, every precaution being of course taken to prevent the main boom coming over, by hauling on the guy or pressing against the boom; this risk, however, should only be hazarded in very light winds.


Lee-going Tide.--
The tide that is running to leeward in the direction of the wind. The opposite to weather-going tide, which see.


Lee Helm.--
The helm put to leeward to luff, or to keep a vessel to or by the wind. Also synonymous with slack helm. If the centre of effort of the sails is much forward of the centre of lateral resistance, the vessel will have a tendency to fall off, and will require the helm to be put to leeward to keep her close to wind. The tendency can be checked by reducing the head sail, or by hardening in the sheets of the after sail and easing the sheets of the head sail. A vessel that requires lee helm will be an awkward one, and in a heavy sea a dangerous one to work to windward. The contrary to "weather helm," which see.
Lee Scuppers.--
Inside the lee bulwarks by the scupper holes. To be always in the lee scuppers is to be always in disgrace.
Lend a Hand Here.-- An order to a person to assist.
Let Fall.--
In rowing an order for a boat's crew to drop oars (after they have been on end) into the rowlocks, tholes, or crutches.
Let Go and Haul.--
In tacking a square rigged vessel the order given to let go the lee braces and haul in on the others.
Let Her Feel the Weight of It.--
An order to keep a vessel more off the wind, and not allow her sails to shake. (See "Give Her the Weight.")
Lewis.-- See "Mooring Rings."
Life Belts.--
Appliances for support in the water. The cork life belts of the National Lifeboat Institution (6s. each), John-street, Adelphi, are the most highly recommended.
Life Buoy.--
Usually a painted canvas ring stuffed with solid cork. When in the water, by placing the hands on the buoy it turns up over the head. The arms are then put through it, and it forms a fine support under the armpits and, of course, encircling the body. This is a great improvement on the old-fashioned ball buoy, with rope bights on it. A life buoy should have an outside diameter of 30in., and contain from 12lb. to 15lb. of solid cork, and float for twenty-four hours whilst suspending 32lb. of iron. Cork shavings, granulated cork, &c., should not be used.
Light Eye.--
A bright white look in the sky above the horizon, sometimes betokening that a breeze may be expected from such a quarter.
The lights which all vessels must exhibit between sundown and sunrise. (See "Side Light.") The modern type of paraffin lamp will burn through a long night without any attention being required to the wick, and except during very strong winds the ventilation does not require any alteration, and owing to the use of good reflectors and dioptric lenses the candlepower for a given size of lamp has been enormously increased.
FIG 64
The dioptric lens was copied from that used in lighthouses, and its function is to collect all the rays of light from the reflector and burner and throw them out (within the prescribed bearings) in one horizontal plane, just high enough above the sea level to catch the eyes of those navigating other vessels.
Captain du Boulay says: "This condensing of all the light rays into a horizontal plane is all very well for steamers, but when sailing vessels are moving along steadily heeled over by their canvas, the plane of illumination is heeled over also, so that although right ahead perhaps the full candlepower is obtained, yet on certain bearings the intensity of the light will diminish and may be almost totally obscured, thus infringing the Board of Trade rule which clearly states that all shiplights are to show an unbroken light over a prescribed arc of the horizon.
The dioptric lens, then, confining as it does the illumination to one horizontal plane, is all very well for fixed lights on shore and for steamer lights, and it may be used for riding lights on sailing vessels, but it is not so suitable for side lights on the latter craft, for directly they lay over in a breeze the plane of illumination becomes inclined ; so that on certain bearings the light may be almost invisible at the sea level owing to the eye of the observer being either above or below the plane, and a better form of lens for these lights is that known as the prismatic, where the surface of the globular glass screen is cut into a number of concave hexagon shaped facets.
With a view to getting some authentic information on this question and other similar matters some very interesting experiments were carried out in 1902 on the Government ranges on the sands at Shoeburyness with various ship-lights as made by some of the leading manufacturers, the intensity and visibility of each light being carefully ascertained on various bearings, and especially so when the light was heeled over laterally to 5û, 10û, 15û, and 20û, and the experience thus gained has had very beneficial results on the modern development of the lamps used on vessels.
In order to get over this difficulty of the heeling effect, whilst not sacrificing the many advantages of the dioptric lens, it is customary in the larger-sized vessels to mount the lamps in gimbals inside a sort of miniature lighthouse or turret, so that the plane of illumination is kept horizontal in spite of the movements of the hull, and Messrs Chance, of Birmingham, make a specialty of this type of lamp with lenses on true dioptric lines of lighthouse glass, accurately curved, ground, and polished, and this is probably the last word in ship-lights at the present moment, where there is ample room for the turrets on board.
For smaller vessels, or where expense has to be considered, the dioptric lens is generally supplanted by the prismatic lens, that is to say, the surface of the glass is cut into a number of concave hexagon-shaped facets, the result being to enormously increase the apparent size of the light, whilst the illumination is not confined to one horizontal plane."


Limber Boards.--
Plank covering the floors of a vessel near the keelson. In yachts built with iron knee floors it is a common practice to fill up all cavities along the keel or hogging piece, fore deadwood and apron, and deadwood aft, with cement, after coating the wood with Stockholm tar.
Limber Clearer.--
A small chain which is kept rove through the limber holes in the floors at the side of the keelson, to allow the bilge water to flow freely to the pumps; occasionally the chain is worked backwards and forwards to clear the holes. This contrivance is seldom met with in yachts.
Line.-- Formerly a general name for a rope or cordage.
Liner.-- An old line of battle ship. Now used to describe a large passenger ship.
A general term applied to the drawing or design of a vessel as depicted by fore-and-aft lines and cross sections. A vessel is said to have "fine lines" when she is very sharp fore-and-aft.
A vessel is said to list when from some cause -- shifting of ballast or cargo or weights -- she heels over.


A narrow strip of plank, usually 4in. in width, cut out of the plank of a ship throughout her whole length, in order that the condition of her frames or timbers may be examined.
A piece of rope with a thimble eye spliced in one end, used in setting square sails; sometimes the lizard is of two or more parts with a thimble in each, the whole being spliced into one tail.
Lloyd's is an association of marine underwriters in the City of London.
Its name is derived from a Coffee House kept by Mr. Edward Lloyd in Tower Street in the 17th century, where underwriters met to transact business. In 1692 Lloyd's Coffee House was removed from Tower Street to Lombard Street; and in 1774, Lloyd's left the Coffee House in Lombard Street for premises in the Royal Exchange, where it has since remained. The wars which lasted from 1775, with but short pauses till 1815, tended to attract marine insurance to Great Britain from all parts of the world, and raised Lloyd's to the high position it has since held.
Candidates for election as members are required to satisfy the Committee as to their means, and in all cases to deposit in the names of trustees a sum of not less than £5000, as additional security for liabilities incurred on account of marine and transport risks. The aggregate amount thus placed at the disposal of the Committee of Lloyd's is very large, but in no way represents the total capital possessed by the Underwriting Members of Lloyd's.
The deposits and guarantees provided by Underwriting Members of the Corporation as security for their underwriting liabilities exceed £7,000,000 sterling.
Lloyd's is also an immense organisation for the collection and distribution of maritime intelligence, which is published daily in "Lloyd's List." This paper, originally established in 1696 as "Lloyd's News," dates from 1726, and is the oldest newspaper in Europe with the exception of the "London Gazette." The Intelligence Department has developed continually under the influence of steam and electricity, and this process keeps pace with the opening of new ports and increased means of communication. The information is supplied by Lloyd's Agents on every coast in the world, who, in written lists, or by telegram, report the arrival and departure of, and casualties to, vessels within their districts. In this connection the value of Lloyd's Signal Stations is very great, not only to underwriters but also to merchants and shipowners, as it is frequently an advantage that a vessel should be intercepted off the coast and ordered to its pert of destination. Shipowners in this way often have the earliest intimation of the arrival of their ships. Vessels arriving off outlying signal stations often bring important intelligence as to derelicts and wrecks passed on their voyages, as well as information of vessels in distress requiring assistance, and overdue vessels arriving on long voyages are reported at these stations. Not one vessel in ten bound to ports in the United Kingdom from distant ports arrives at her terminal port without first being reported from one of Lloyd's Signal Stations. At some of these stations wireless telegraphy apparatus has been installed.
Lloyd's Agent.--
Lloyd's has Agents in all parts of the world. The duties of these Agents so far as they concern yacht owners may be broadly defined as follows:
In case of shipwreck to render to masters of vessels any advice or assistance they may require.
Lloyd's call attention to the fact that, in all cases when owners have to make claims for loss or average on their policies, it very much facilitates settlement by their underwriters if they report immediately to Lloyd's Agent at the port of arrival, with a view to his conducting the necessary surveys and assessing the damage sustained.
Lloyd's Agent when called upon to intervene in case of damage to vessels with a view of granting a certificate of sea damage, has the power to appoint a surveyor, who should sign his certificate as "Surveyor to Lloyd's Agent," and in every ease the signature of the surveyor must be authenticated by that of Lloyd's Agent. In case of damage to a yacht the Committee of Lloyd's prefer that the choice of a surveyor should fall upon the Surveyor to Lloyd's Register whenever there is one stationed at the port.
It is also the duty of Lloyd's Agent to report by telegraph direct to Lloyd's (Royal Exchange, London. E.C.) all casualties which may occur to vessels within his district.
It will be seen that the Surveyor to Lloyd's Register is employed by preference to make, on behalf of Lloyd's Agent, surveys on ships when Lloyd's Agent is called upon by ship. owners or others interested to conduct a survey of a ship or to certify to damage to vessels.
Lloyd's Register.--
This Society (71, Fenchurch St., E.C.) must not be confused with Lloyd's. The Society-whose proper title is LLOYD'S REGISTER OF BRITISH AND FOREIGN SHIPPING -- is a Society voluntarily maintained by the shipping community. Its principal functions so far as yachtsmen arc concerned are :--
(a) The survey and classification of yachts, &c. (both new and old) and the yachts of the International Rating classes.
(b) The annual publication of a Register of Yachts, a Register of American Yachts, Rules for the Construction of Ships and Machinery and Yachts, &c. The two Registers of Yachts contain, in addition to the names, classes, and detailed information relating to yachts classed by the Society, the names, dimensions, &c. of British and foreign yachts, and of American yachts respectively, together with much other matter relating to yachts and yachting and particulars of all the Racing Yachts of the International classes.
(c) The supervision of the testing of anchors and chains under the provisions of the Chain Cables and Anchors Acts.
(d) The supervision of the testing, at the manufactories, of the steel intended or use in the construction of ships and boilers.
(e) The survey of refrigerating machinery and appliances.
Lloyd's Surveyor.-- The duties of a Surveyor to Lloyd's Register may be briefly defined as follows :-
1. To carry out and report to the Committee all surveys (during construction and afterwards) required on vessels, or their engines and hollers, under the Society's rules, with a view to the classification of vessels in the Register Book, or the maintenance of their classification therein.
2. In cases of damage (whether to classed or unclassed vessels) to hold special surveys at the request, or with the consent, of the owners, masters, or agents, to ascertain the extent of damage and to recommend the necessary repairs.
3. To carry out tests of steel, large forgings and castings, &c at manufactories.
4. To make measurements and surveys (on both classed and unclassed vessels).
Under the first and last heads the Yacht Owner will often find it a great advantage to employ a Lloyd's Surveyor whose services (to examine a yacht and make a fair report upon her condition or construction) can always he obtained for a moderate fee upon application to the Secretary of Lloyd's Register, 71, Fenchurch Street, London, E.C. (See also "Yacht Register.")

Lead-water-line.-- The line of flotation when a vessel is properly laden or ballasted.

Lead-water Section.-- The horizontal plane at the line of flotation.
Lob Sided.-- Larger or heavier on one side than on the other.
Locker.-- A small cabin, or cupboard, or cavity to stow articles in.
Log Board or Log Slate.--
The slate on which the hourly occurrences in navigating a ship-her speed, canvas, courses, the strength of wind, direction of wind, and general condition of weather-are set down.


Log Line and Ship.--
An ancient contrivance for testing the speed of a ship. The line is attached to a board (termed the ship), and is marked for knots every 47ft. 3in. but an allowance is made for the following wake). According as the number of knots which run out in 28sec. by the sand glass, so is the speed of the vessel. There is a drift of some feet between the log ship and the first knot, the glass being turned as the first knot takes the water. number of knots run out in the 28sec. marks The the speed of the vessel. Massey's or Walker's log are now constantly towed, but the log line and ship are regularly used on hoard large steamers. (See "Harpoon Log.'')
Log Official.-- See "Official Log."
Long Beat.-- A ship's launch; usually carvel built.
Long Leg and a Short One.-- In heating to windward, when a vessel can sail nearer her course.
FIG 65
intended course on one tack than another. Thus, say her course is E and the wind S.E. by E. she would lie E. by N. one tack, which would he the long leg and S. by E. on the other, which would be the short leg. (Fig. 65.)
Long Shore.-- A contraction of along shore.
Long Tackle Blocks.--
A double block with one sheave above the other, as a fiddle block, which see. Used for the runner tackle, &c.
The direction a vessel points when sailing by the wind. As, she "looks high," "looks up well," "looks a high course " &c.
Lookout, The.--
The men stationed on the bow, &c. to watch the approach of other ships or to seek the land, &c.
Loose.-- Adrift; to unloose, to unfurl ; to loose tyers of a sail, &c.
Lose her Way.--
Said of a vessel when she loses motion or gradually comes to a stop.
Lose His Number at Mess.-- (Slang) To die.
To cause a thing to descend-as to "lower the topsail," &c. An order given to ease up halyards, as "Lower," "Lower away!"
Lower Masts.-- The masts that are next the deck.
Lubber's Hole.--
The opening in the top of a square rigged vessel, by which seamen get into the top instead of by the futtock shrouds.
Lubber's Point.--
The black line or stroke in the front part of a compass basin, by which the direction of a vessel's head is told. The lubber's point is always in a line parallel with the vessel's centre-line.
Lucky Puff.-- A puff that "frees" a vessel in close hauled sailing.
To come nearer the wind. To " spring your luff" is to luff all the ship is capable of, without making her sails shake.
Luff and Touch Her.--
To bring the vessel so near the wind that the head sails begin to shake a little.
Luff of a Sail.-- The weather edge of a sail. (See "Weather Cloth.")
Luff Tackle.--
A tackle composed of a single and double block, the standing part of the rope being fast to the single block.
Luff upon Luff.--
One luff tackle hitched to the fall of another so as to make a double purchase.
A vessel rigged with lug sails like the fishing boats of this country and France.
Lug-Sail Boat.-- A boat with a lug sail. (See "Dipping Lug.")
Term used in a racing schooner for the sheet attached to the clew of the foresail. In a modern racing schooner the foresail sheet is on the boom of the foresail in the usual way and the foresail sheet runs on a horse on deck forward of the mainmast, but the clew and leech of the foresail extend beyond the fore boom end, abaft the mainmast, and an extra sheet called the " log. sheet" is attached to the clew of the sail and is bowsed down or hauled well aft, being run through a fair lead on deck on the lee quarter. It is sheeted home by means of a double tackle.
When a vessel is left unsupported at the bow, stern, or amidships, so that she makes a sudden dive forward, or by the stern, or a heavy weather or lee roll.
Stoppings of white lead, putty, tar, varnish, &c. for seams and joins in tanks, &c.; sometimes used with a strip of canvas as a kind of caulking.
Lying To.-- The condition of a ship when hove to. (See "Trying" and "Lay.")





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