Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and Architecture

(11th and final edition, 1913)


Mackerel Sky.--
A sky streaked with fine clouds, something in the manner of the stripes on the back of a mackerel.
Mackerel Tailed.--
A boat with a very sharp or fine after body. "Cod's bead and mackerel's tail" or "full forward and fine aft," once supposed to represent the form of least resistance.
Built, as built mast, &c., meaning that the mast is not made of one piece of timber, but by several pieces bound together like a cask. A term of reproach to a boat builder when applied to his work, in contradistinction to the regular term "built."
The open ocean. The principal, as mainmast, main boom, main stay, main sail, &c.
Main Breadth.--
The extreme breadth of a vessel. Main Course.-- The main sail of a square rigged ship.


Main Keel.-- The keel proper, and not the keelson or false keel.
The rope or tackle which holds the aft clew of the main sail, or main boom. A good arrangement of mainsheet for a small boat with boom to the sail is to make fast one end of the sheet to one end of the quarter knee, or near thereto (so that the sheet is clear of the helms. man), take the other end through a thimble eye in a strop round the boom and down through another thimble eye strap in the other quarter knee; the hauling part can be made fast by a turn and bight above the second thimble. This arrangement would do for a 10ft. or 12ft. boat, but in one of larger size a block should be stropped to the boom and quarter knees instead of the thimbles. (See "Belay.")
Mainsheet Horse.--
A mainsheet horse is frequently used in small boats, and for racing craft in large yachts as well. Less mainsheet is required on a wind when the lower block travels on a horse, and therefore the boom cannot lift so much and assist in throwing the sail in a bag. In a seaway, however, there is some advantage in having more drift between the blocks than would be very likely given if a horse were used. For small boats, to obviate the shifting of the mainsheet from side to side in tacking, the horse is of advantage. The foresheet can travel on a horse if the boat be decked or half decked.
Mainsheet Slip.--
The Navy mainsheet slip is usually fitted to the gunwale, with a lanyard on the ring which holds the tongue to slip the sheet if necessary. This slip can also be fitted to a mainsheet horse, but practically the hitch at a answers all the purpose, as the lanyard has to be manipulated by the hand just the same as any ordinary tongue and ring attachment has. (Fig. 66.)
The mainmast headman of a schooner to pass the lacing of a topsail, keep the topsail yard clear, &c.
Make Fast.-- To securely belay a rope or join two ropes.
Make Beady There.--
An order sometimes given to prepare to tack or lower a sail, as "Make ready for going about there !" the " there" referring to the crew.
Make Sail.--
To set sails. To add to sails already set. To shake out reefs to commence sailing after laying to.
Make Stern Way.--
To drive astern as a vessel sometimes will in tacking by getting in irons or through the head sails being thrown aback.
Making the Land.-- After losing sight of the land to approach and sight it.
Making Water.--
Leaking. A vessel is said to make no water if she is so tight that none ever gets through her seams, &c., into the hold.
To apply manual power to anything, as "Man the capstan," "Man the boat,' &c.
Man Overboard.--
A shout of alarm made on board ship when a man gets overboard by accident. In such cases it is not usual to wait for orders, lint everyone joins in if he sees he can be of service in throwing a life. buoy, helping to launch a boat, jumping over. board. &c.
An architectural term, but used in America for a booby hatch or raised deck. A mansard roof to a house is a light structure above the masonry. It took its name from Mansard, a French architect of the 17th century.
FIG 66
Man Ship.--
An old-fashioned custom in the Navy of mustering the crew along the bulwarks to cheer upon parting company or meeting another ship after racing. Losing yachts man the weather deck or bulwarks and cheer a victorious yacht, a custom probably derived from the practice in "fighting days" of one war ship cheering another which was an enemy. (See "Cheering.")
Marine Glue.--
This composition is said to be composed of 1 part indiarubber, 12 mineral naphtha or coal tar heated gently, and 20 parts of shellac, mixed with it. The composition is now usually employed to stop the seams of decks after they are caulked. The old fashioned plan was to use white lead putty for the stopping and indeed it is at this present time occasionally used the objection to it is that it dries as hard as a cement and cracks, the result being that water gets into the caulking, rots it, and then leaky decks are the consequence. Moreover, hard putty is very difficult to get out of the seams without damaging the edges of the plank, and then in re-stopping ragged ugly seams are the result. Marine glue, on the other band, can easily he renewed, and the edges of the plank remain uninjured.
In using marine glue the following practice should be observed : In driving the oakum or cotton thread (the latter is sometimes preferred as it can be laid in finer strands, a matter of consideration if the plank is closely laid) into the seams, the caulking iron Should be dipped in naphtha and not in oil, as, if the sides of the plank are touched with the latter the glue will not adhere ; naphtha, on the other hand, dissolves the glue and assists in closely cementing the seams. The plank should be quite dry when the glue is applied, or it will not adhere to the sides of the seams. The glue should be dissolved in a pot, and applied by lip ladles used for paying, two being kept going; or the glue can be melted in the lip ladles. Great care must be taken that the glue is melted slowly, as if it be melted over too fierce a fire it will be spoilt. A little of the liquid glue can be usefully mixed with the other as it assists in keeping it dissolved. The glue that runs over the sides of the seams should be cleaned off with a broad sharp chisel and remelted. It is not advisable to scrape the surplus glue off the seams, as it cannot be so removed without leaving a ragged, unsightly surface. The manufacturer of this marine glue is Mr. Jeffry, Limehouse. A cheaper marine glue, not easily spoilt in melting, is made by the Waterproof Glue Company, Landport, Hants.


A sailor. Two hundred years ago it was spelt "maryner," and appears to have only been applied to men who were perfect as seamen. Thus, from a muster roll made in the seventeenth century, we find so many men set down as maryners" and so many as "seafaring men."
The pieces of leather, &c., on a lead-line (see "Lead.") In sounding it is usual to say, "By the mark," &c., if the depth of water accords to a mark; if there be no "mark," as between three and five fathoms, the leadsman says, "By the deep four," &c. (Sea "Lead.")
To hitch spun yarn round a rope to secure its parts, or round a hank of yarn to secure it. (See " Selvagee.")
Marline Spike.--
An iron implement tapering to a sharp point, used to open the strands of rope for splicing, to turn eye bolts, &c.
A strut or spreader for the bobstay, formerly termed a dolphin striker on big ships.
Mast Carlines or Carlings.--
Pieces of timber fitted fore and aft between the beams to support the mast, &c.
Master.-- The captain of a ship. (See "Seaman.")
Master's Certificate.--
Certificates known as "Yacht Master's Certificates" are granted by the Board of Trade to owners of yachts of British Registry.
The examination for these Certificates is purely voluntary, and is confined to persons who command their own seagoing pleasure yachts. A Master of a yacht who is net also the sole owner, or who is under 21 years of age, is not eligible for examination.
Only one description of Certificate is issued, whether the yacht is foreign-going or cruises within the home trade limits.
The Certificate will not entitle the holder to command any vessel except the pleasure yacht or yachts, of which he is at the time the sole owner.
Candidates are not required to have served any specified time afloat, as it is believed that their sea knowledge will he sufficiently tested by the examination they will have to pass in seamanship.
A candidate for examination is required to produce a statutory declaration to the effect (1) that he is sole owner of the yacht; (2) that the yacht is seagoing; (3) that it is not to be used for trading purposes. He will also be required to fill up the usual form of application, and pay the fee of £2 at a Mercantile Marine Office.
In all other respects the regulations relating to examinations of Masters of foreign-going ships will apply in these cases.


The examination in navigation for a Yacht Master's Certificate is precisely the same as that prescribed for an Ordinary Master's Certificate, except that in the civil duties of a shipmaster the Master of a yacht will only be expected to possess a knowledge of what he is required to do by the Merchant Shipping Act.
The regulation relating to an Ordinary Master's Certificate is as follows :A Candidate for an Ordinary Master's Certificate will ho required to work out any twelve of the nautical problems prescribed for the grades of Second and First Mate that may be given him by the Examiner, in addition to the chart paper, the cyclone paper, and the oral subjects prescribed for the grades of Second and First Mate. He will also be required :-
(a) To find the latitude by the altitude of the Polar star at any time.
(b) To find the latitude by the meridian altitude of the moon.
(c) To find the magnetic bearing of any fixed object when at sea or at anchor from bearings of the object taken with the ship's head on equidistant compass points, and to compute the deviation therefrom; to construct a deviation
curve upon a Napier's diagram which will be furnished by the Examiner, and show that he understands its practical application ; to give satisfactory written and oral answers to certain practical questions as to the effect of the ship's iron upon the compasses, and the method of determining the deviation, and show how to compensate the deviation by magnets and soft iron by the aid of Beall's Compass Deviascope.
(d) To find on a chart the course to steer by compass in order to counteract the effect of a given current, and find the distance the ship will make good towards a given point in a given time ; and to work out practically the correction to apply to soundings taken at a given time and place to compare with the depth marked on the chart.
He will be required to answer viva voce questions on the following subjects :-
(e) The law as to the engagement and discharge and management of the crew, and the entries to be made in the official log.
(f) How to prevent and check an outbreak of scurvy on board ship.
(g) The law as to load-line marks, and the entries and reports to be made respecting them.
(h) Invoices charter party, hills of lading, Lloyd's agent, nature of bottomry, bills of exchange, surveys, averages, &c.
(i) The prevailing winds and currents of tile globe.
(j) The trade routes.
(k) Tides.
The candidate must give satisfactory answers as to his knowledge of making and taking in sail, and as to the management of a yacht under canvas in moderate and in stormy weather. He must have a thorough knowledge of the rule of the road at sea as regards both steamers and sailing vessels, their regulation lights and fog and sound signals; and be able to describe the signals of distress, and the signals to be made by ships wanting a pilot, and the liabilities and penalties incurred by the misuse of these signals. He must also understand the use and management of the rocket apparatus in the event of his vessel being stranded. He must be able to mark and use the lead and log lines; to cant a vessel on a lee shore; to moor and unmoor a ship; to keep a clear anchor, and to carry out an anchor. He must know how to keep his vessel out of the trough of the sea in the event of accident; how to rig rafts and jury rudders, &c.; and what steps to take if his vessel is disabled or unmanageable and drifting towards a lee shore. He will also be examined as to his resources for for the preservation of the crew in the event of wreck. He must also possess a knowledge of the measures he should adopt for preventing and checking an outbreak of scurvy on board; and be prepared to answer any other questions relating to the management of a yacht either steam or sailing which the Examiner may ask.
EXTRA MASTER OF YACHT.-- An Extra Certificate will be issued to the owner of a yacht who either holds, or is qualified to be examine d for, a Yacht Master's Certificate, subject to examination in navigation as prescribed for an Extra Master's Certificate, and examination in seamanship as prescribed for a Yacht Master's Certificate, but the Candidate for an Extra Certificate will be expected to show a more extensive practical knowledge than is required of a Candidate for the Yacht Master's Certificate.
NOTE.-- An Extra Master's Certificate entitles the holder to go to sea as Master of any vessel sailing or steam.
The examination is voluntary and intended for such persons as wish to prove their superior qualifications and are desirous of having Certificates of the highest grade granted by the Board of Trade.
The extra examination may take place when the applicant is qualified to go up for examination for an Ordinary Master's Certificate, or at any time subsequent to his having passed the examination for that Certificate.
Master Mariner.--
A master of a vessel who has a master's certificate of competency. An old fashioned term. A "master mariner is popularly known as a captain" among yacht sailors ; but a master is only a self-dubbed captain. Master is the correct term, and the only recognised one in law. Yacht masters are not required to hold the Board of Trade certificate of competency.
Master Mate.--
A mate certificated as master. This was originally written "master's mate," and meant a person appointed to assist the master of a man of war in carrying out his duties.
The part of a mast above the hounds. To masthead is to hoist anything up to the truck, &c.
Masthead Light.--
The white light which power vessels are required to exhibit at the masthead when under way. (See "Side Lights.")
Masthead Man.-- In yacht parlance, the man who goes aloft to lace a topsail, &c.
Masthead Pendants.-- The pendants and runners which help support the mast.
Mast Hoops.--
The hoops to which the luff of fore and aft sails are seized to keep the sail to the mast.
Mast Rope.--
The heel rope by which a topmast is sent up and lowered; sometimes termed heel rope.
In competition as yachts in a race. Formerly all contests between yachts were termed matches. Of late years the term race has been more generally applied to such encounters.
An officer next in command to a master.

Maul.-- A heavy hammer used by shipwrights.

Meaking Iron.-- An implement used to extract old caulking from seams.
Formerly written admeasurement. The computation of a vessel's tonnage by certain rules. (See " Tonnage.')


Meet Her.--
When a vessel begins to fly to or run off the wind, to stop her doing so by the helm. Generally to check a vessel's tendency to yaw by using the helm.


Meet, To.--
To meet a vessel with the helm is after the helm has been put one way to alter her course to put it the other way to stop the course being altered any further. This is also called "checking with the helm."


Mess.-- The number of officers or men who eat together. Disorder; entanglement.
1 Metre =3.280899 feet, 1 Square Metre = 10.7643 square feet. To convert linear feet into metres multiply by 0.30479 or 0.305; to convert linear metres into feet multiply by 3.28 ; to convert square feet into square metres multiply by 0.0929 ; to convert square metres into square feet multiply by 10.764.
Racing yachts of the International Classes are measured in England in feet and tenths of feet and metres are not used by the Y.R.A. or by British designers.
The metre system is only used on the Continent. Nevertheless in 1906, when the International Rules were agreed to, in concession to foreign countries England agreed to the Class Limits being fixed in metres. Thus we have classes of 23; 19; 15; 12; 10; 9; 8; 7; 6 and 5 metres, the equivalents in English being:
75.46; 62.33; 49.21; 39.37; 32.80; 29.52; 26.24; 22.96; 19.68 and 16.40 feet.
This figure approximately represents the length on waterline of the yacht; thus a 15-metre yacht is about 49.21 feet on L.W.L. The reader will therefore see that no change whatever has been effected in English yachting by the adoption in 1906 of metres for yacht measurement, because for all calculations our designers still employ the old English unit, the "foot." English designers, however, have never used feet and inches but always employ feet and tenths the decimal scale being easier to work. The effect of the adoption of the Metric standard has been to make English class limits work out at an odd figure, thus instead of a 1-rater or 24 footer we now have a "22.96 footer" which is a 7-metre boat.
A slang term for a small racing yacht built to the International Rules ; just as a "Rater" implied a "1-Rater" or "24 footer" or such craft; so a "Metre Beat" now implies a similar boat of the International class.
Middle Body.-- The middle third of a vessel's length.
Middle Watch.-- The watch between midnight and 4 a.m.
Sails if rolled up when they are damp frequently mildew, and it is almost impossible to get the stains out entirely. New sails suffer most in this respect, as the "dressing" not being entirely washed or worked out of them will ferment and cause the mildew. The stains can be partly removed by scrubbing the sail with fresh water and soap; then rub the sail with soap and sprinkle or rub whiting over it; leave the sail to dry and bleach in the sun, and repeat the process more than once if necessary. Both sides of the sail should be scrubbed. Chloride of lime and other caustics and acids would remove mildew, but would almost certainly make the canvas rotten. If chloride of lime be used only the clear liquor should be allowed to touch the sail, and the latter should be well rinsed in fresh water afterwards (see " Bleaching "). If sails are stowed whilst damp or wet, they should be hoisted again as soon as possible for drying or airing.
Mile.-- See "Knot."
Missing Stays.-- To fail in an attempt to tack, or to go from one tack to the other.
Mizen Bumpkin.--
A short spar that extends from the taffrail aft for the lower block of the mizen sheet to be hooked to. Most modern yachts have this bumpkin generally crooked downwards, the reason given being that the downward crook shows up the sheer of the yacht. A more practical reason, however, can be given, and that is, if a bobstay is used, a more effective purchase is obtained for it.
Mizenmast.-- In a ship the after mast. So also in a yawl or ketch.
Mizen Staysail.--
A sail set "flying" from a yawl's mizenmast head to an eye bolt on deck forward of the mizenmast. Generally set with a quarterly wind.
A weight or force multiplied by the length of the lever upon which it acts. Sail moment generally means the area of sails and the pressure of wind upon them multiplied by the distance the centre of effort is above the centre of lateral resistance, which represents the length of lever.
A force represented by a weight and the velocity with which it is moved.
Sailors say there will be a moon at such and such a date, meaning that there will be a new moon or full moon, from which the time of high water is calculated.
Moor.-- To anchor by two cables.
Mooring Rings.--
The rings by which the chain is attached to large stones used for moorings. Sometimes the bolts that hold these rings pass clean through the stone, and are secured underneath, but a more secure plan than this is that known as a "Lewis." In the engraving a is the ring or shackle, b a bolt with a screw nut and linch pin; c c movable parts of the bolt; d the key or wedge. When the key is in its place the cavities, if any, can he filled with lead or sulphur.
FIG 67.
Morning Watch.-- The watch from 4 AM to 8 AM
Morse Code.-- See "Signals."
Mosquito Fleet.--
A term applied to small racing yachts at some ports. In 1894 the American Corinthian Mosquito Fleet claimed to have originated the term, and was referred to as follows; "The application of that insectism to yachts or boats was first made by an association in Barnegat Bay, U.S.A. It has not yet been adopted in England. and is one of those crazy Americanisms which are permitted because we love novelty above good taste." Dr. Grant, of New York, then correctly pointed out that the term has been used in England for many years, and traces the origin of the word to masca fly and qicito diminutive or little, hence mosquito or little fly: As a matter of fact, a "mosquito fleet" has been in existence for many years on the Devonshire coast, the great port for them being Dartmouth.
In the regatta programme of the Royal Western Yacht Club for 1866, the third event is scheduled as follows :
"Prize of 6£. for the Mosquito Fleet of Pleasure Boats."
There were nine entries, and Mr. R. Martin's Swallow was the winner, with Mr. Lander's Bantam second, Mr. Hudson's Butterfly third, and Mr. C. Hamilton's Boomerang fourth. It is not certain when the term Mosquito Fleet first came into use in this country; but in 1859 "Vanderdecken," in an article published in Hunt's Yachting Magazine , said, "The Mosquito Fleet may be justly esteemed the nursery for our yachtsmen ; the little yacht leads on to the handy 25, the flying 50, and the stately schooner of 200 tons."
The depth a timber is made between its curved surfaces as distinct from its siding, which is the thickness between its flat surfaces.
Moulded Breadth.-- The greatest breadth of a vessel without the plank.
Depth.-- See " Depth."
Curves used by draughtsmen. The skeleton frames made by shipwrights to cut the frames by.


Mourning Ribband.--
A blue ribbon or stripe run round a yacht's side, instead of a gold or white one, to denote mourning. Mourning is also denoted by flying an ensign or burgee half-mast.


Yarns wound round the jaws of hooks to prevent them becoming detached.
'Mudian Rig.-- A contraction of "Bermudian rig."
Muslin.-- A slang term given to the sails : generally applied to balloon sails.
Muzzle.-- To seize an unruly sail and press the wind out of it in lowering.
A strong wind which blows directly down a vessel's intended course. Synonymous with "nose-ender."





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