Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and Architecture

(11th and final edition, 1913)

F. G.


Fag End.--
When there is "nothing left of the rope but the end." The frayed-out end of a rope.
Fairing a Drawing.--
A process by which the intersections of curved lines with other lines in the body plan, half-breadth plan, and sheer plan are made to correspond. A fair curve is a curved line which has no abrupt or unfair inflexions in it.
Fair Lead.--
When the fall of a rope leads fairly, without obstruction, from the sheave hole. Also a "lead" made for a rope through a sheave hole or through any other hole.


Fair Leads.--
Holes in plank, &c., for ropes to lead through, so that they lead fairly and are not nipped or formed into a bight.
The ship's course in a channel. The navigable channel of a harbour as distinct from an anchorage in a harbour. A harbour master's duty is to see that the fairway is kept clear, and that no vessels improperly anchor in it. A fair way is generally buoyed.
Fair Wind.--
A wind by which a vessel can proceed on her course without tacking; it may range from close-hauled point to dead aft.
Fake, A.--
One of the rings formed in coiling a rope. The folds of a cable when ranged on deck in long close loops. To fake is to arrange in folds.
The loose end of the rope of a tackle, the hauling part of a tackle; also applied generally to the tackle of the bobstay and the topmast backstays, &c.
Fall Aboard.--
One ship sailing or driving into another. A sail is said to fall aboard when the wind is so light that it will not stay blown out.
Fall Astern.--
To drop astern. When two vessels are sailing together, if one fails to keep company with the other by not sailing so fast.
Fall Off.--
To drop away from the wind; when a vessel is hove to she is said to fall off if her head falls to leeward, in opposition to coming to; also when a vessel yaws to windward of her course and then falls off to her course or to leeward of it. Not used in the sense of breaking off, which means when the wind comes more ahead and causes an alteration in the direction of a vessel's head to leeward of a course she had previously been sailing.
Fall To.-- To join in hauling, to commence work.
Falling Tide.-- The ebbing tide.
False Keel.--
A piece of timber fitted under the main keel to deepen it or protect it when taking the ground.
False Tack.--
A trick sometimes practised in yacht racing when two vessels are working close hauled together, and one has been "weather bowing" the other every time they went about. To be rid of this attention the crew of the vessel under the lee quarter of the other makes a sudden move as if about to tack; the helm is put down and the vessel shot up in the wind; the other vessel does the same and probably goes on the opposite tack; if she does so the former vessel fills off on her original tack, and the two part company. To shoot up in the wind and fill off on the same tack again.
Fashion Timbers.-- The timbers which form the shape or fashion of the stern.
Fast.-- Made fast by belaying. (See "Breast Fast," "Bow Fast," "Quarter Fast.")


The bolts, nails, &c., by which the framing and planking of a vessel are held together.
A sea measure of six feet. To fathom a thing is to arrive at the bottom of it, to understand it.
Fay, To.--
To join pieces of timber together very closely Plank is said to fay the timbers when it fits closely to it.
Feather Edge.--
When a plank or timber tapers to a very thin edge, "tapering to nothing."
Turning an oar over on its blade as it comes out of the water.
Feeling her Way.-- Proceeding by sounding with the hand lead.
Feel the Helm.--
In close hauled sailing when a vessel begins to gripe or carry weather helm. Also generally, when a vessel begins to gather headway so that she can be steered, or 'feel her helm'.
Feint.-- To pretend to tack. (See "False Tack.")
A sort of buffer made of rope, wood, matting, cork, or other material to hang over the side of a vessel when she is about to come into contact with another vessel or object.
Fend Off.--
To ward off the effects of a collision by placing a fender between the vessel and the object which is going to be struck.
In chose hauled sailing when a vessel arrives at or to windward of any point or object, as "she will fetch that buoy in two more boards" or "she will fetch the mark this tack" &c.

Fetch Away.--

To slip or move without intention. To fetch sternway or headway is when a vessel begins to move ahead or astern.


A square iron pin used to keep topmasts and bowsprits in their places.


When the fid has secured the topmast or bowsprit in its proper place.

Fiddle Block.--

A long fiddle-shaped block with one sheave above another. (See "Sister Block" and "Long Tackle Block.")

Fiddle Head.--

The curved part of the knee at the upper fore part of the stem in schooners, turned upwards aft like the curly part of a fiddle head. A scroll head turns downwards.

Fill, To.--

When a vessel has been sailed so close to wind that the sails have shaken, and the helm being put up the sails are "filled" with wind In getting under way after being hove to a vessel is said to fill, or to have been "filled upon."

Fillings or Filling Timbers .--

Pieces of wood or timbers used to fill various spaces that may occur in ship building.


To sail a vessel "fine" is to keep her so chose to the wind that her sails are on the point of shaking; considered sometimes good sailing if done with great watchfulness. Too fine means too near the wind.

Fish, To.--

To strengthen or repair a damaged spar by lashing a batten ore another spar to it.

Fisherman's Bend.-- See "Knots."


Fisherman's Walk.--

When there is very little deck room, "Three steps and overboard."
Fishing Tackle .--
The lines, hooks, sinkers, &c., used by fishermen. Messrs. Hearder and Son, of 195, Union-street, Plymouth, publish a book giving a full description of all the lines, nets, &c., necessary for a yacht, with instructions for using the same. The book can be had on application to Messrs. Hearder.
Fitted Out.--
When a vessel is "all-a-taunto,'' which see. A vessel ready to proceed to sea.
Fitting Out.--
Getting a ship's rigging, sails, &c., into place after she has been dismantled.
Flag Officer.--
An Admiral, Vice-Admiral, ore Rear-Admiral; also the Commodore, Vice. Commodore, or Rear-Commodore of a club.
Pieces of bunting of various forms, colors, and devices, such as ensigns, jacks, burgees, &c.
Flag Signals.--
See "Signals"
Flags, the size of.--
The size of the racing flags usually carried is as under :
Tons ft-in ft-in
5 1-6 by 1-0
10 1-9 by 1-2
20 2-3 by 1-9
40 2-9 by 2-0
60 3-0 by 2-3
100 3-6 by 2-9
150 4-0 by 3-3
200 4-6 by 3-9
and above 200 tons the same.
The burgee of a yacht 45ft. long over all would be 2ft 6in in the fly, and 3/4in for every foot of length of the yacht up to 130ft. over all. The ensign would be 6ft. for a 45ft. yacht, and 1-in. for every additional foot of length of time yacht up to 130ft. over all.
Flare.-- To project outwards, contrary to tumbling home.
Flashing Lights.-- See "Signals"
Flat Aback.--
In square rigged ships when all the yards are trimmed across the ship, with the wind ahead so as to produce sternway.
Flat Aft.--
When sheets are trimmed in as chose as the vessel will bear fore close hauled sailing.
Flat Floored.--
When the bottom timbers ore floors of a vessel project from the keel in a more or less horizontal direction.
Flatten in Sheets.-- To haul in the sheets.
Fleet, To.--
To overhaul a tackle or separate the blocks after they have been hauled close together.
Floating Anchor.--
Although floating anchors are continually referred to in old writings as a means whereby many ships have been enabled to ride out very heavy gales in comparative ease, we seldom hear of their being used now, except in yachts. No doubt many a ship has been lost through getting broadside on to the sea, whereas they might have kept bowing the sea by such a simple contrivance as a floating anchor. However, masters, it would seem, prefer to heave-to, as they like to keep their vessels under command. In a very heavy sea and gale a floating anchor may be of very great service, and no doubt if a vessel can be kept bow to the sea, she will feel the violence of it in a much less degree than she would if hove-to, when she might be continually flying-to against the sea after falling off.
FIG 39.
FIG 40.
Many plans for floating anchors have been used, the simplest being thus made; three spars, in length about two-thirds the beam of the vessel, were lashed together by their ends in the form of a triangle; over this triangle a jib made of stout canvas was lashed. Then to each corner of the triangle a rope was made fast: the ends of these ropes were then bent to a hawser, and thus formed a kind of bridle. A weight was attached to one corner of the triangle to keep it in a vertical position ; veer out the hawser and ride to 30, 50, or 70 fathoms, according to the sea.
But the old plan, given in "Falconer's Marine Dictionary" (date 1789), is the most approved (see the diagram, Figs. 39, 40); k, m, n, o, are the ends of two iron bars formed into a cross, and connected by a stout bolt, nut, and pin at their intersections s. At each end of the bars is a hole through which a strong rope is rove, hauled taut, and well secured. Thus a square is formed, and over the square a piece of stout canvas is laced to the roping. Four stout ropes are made fast to the iron bars, and make a sort of bridle or crow foot, the other ends being bent to a ring x. The ends should be well seized or "clinched." The hawser is bent to this ring to ride by. To prevent the anchor sinking, a buoy, B, is made fast attached to one corner with 6 or 7 fathoms of drift; this buoy will also prevent the anchor "diving" (as it would, like a kite flies into the air) when a strain is brought upon it. The buoy rope p should lead on hoard; h is the hawser to which the vessel is riding, A is the anchor, and B the buoy.
To get the anchor on board haul in on the line p; this will bring the anchor edgeways, and it can then be readily hauled in. (See also "Oil at Sea.")


Floating Dock.--
Upon lakes, where there are no tides, and no convenience for hauling a yacht up, a floating dock may be of service to get at a yacht's bottom. The dock would he rectangular in form, of which |__| might be a transverse section, and its size would depend upon the weight of the yacht that had to bedecked. The weight of the yacht can roughly be arrived at thus :
length on load line, multiplied by beam on load line, multiplied by draught of water to rabbet of keel; the product in turn being multiplied by the fraction 0.3.
The decimal .3 is used, as that fairly allows for the quantity cut away from the cube in modelling. Say the yacht is 40ft. long, 8ft. broad, and 6ft. deep to the rabbet in the keel, then 40 x 8 x 6, equal to 1920 cubic feet. 1920 multiplied by 0.3 is equal to 576 cubic feet. There are 35 cubic feet of salt water to one ton, and 576 divided by 35 is equal to 16.4 tons. (There are 36 cubic feet of fresh water to one ton.)
A dock 50ft. long, 16ft. broad, and immersed 2ft., would (omitting of course the reduction by the factor .3, as the dock would be a cube) be equal to 45 tons; the weight of the dock made of 4-inch deal, would be, if the sides were 10ft. deep, about 20 tons; this would leave a margin of 25 tons for floating at 2ft. draught. A false bottom and sides 2ft. deep would have to be made in the dock; also a door at one end hinged from its lower edge, level with the top of the false bottom, and rabbeted at the sides To get the yacht in the dock lower the door and fill the false bottom and sides with water until the dock sank low enough to be hauled under the keel of the yacht; then close the valve which lets the water in, shut the door, and pump the water out of the false bottom and sides (a hose for the pump should be used in case the dock sank). The yacht should be shored up from the sides of the dock before she took any list. With caution such a contrivance could be used for floating a deep draught yacht over shallows from one lake to another, or through canals ; in such eases, if the draught of water for going over the shallows were not limited to 2ft., it would be well to keep the false bottom full or partially full of water.


Flood Tide.-- The rising tide, contrary to ebb.
Floors.-- The bottom timbers of a vessel.
The cargo of a wreck that may be floating about or liberated from the wreck.

Flowing Sheet.--

In sailing free, when the sheets are eased up or slackened off.
Flowing Tide.-- The rising tide, the flood tide.
FIG. 41.
Fluid Compass.--
A compass card in a basin of fluid, usually spirit, used in rough weather because the card should not jump about. In a small yacht a good and steady compass is an essential part of the outfit, and if there be any sea on the usual compass card and bowl are perfectly useless to steer by. The fluid compass then becomes necessary, and frequently a "life boat" compass, which costs about 5£, is used. A more yacht-like looking liquid compass, however, is one sold by most yacht fitters, price about 6£ 6s., shown by Fig. 41. The extreme height is only 1ft. 2in., and the card remains steady under the most trying circumstances of pitching and rolling. Spirit is usually used in the compass bowl in the proportion of one-fourth to three-fourths water; or glycerine in the same proportion; or distilled water can be used alone. A grain of thymol is said to prevent the spirit, &c,. turning brown. (See "Binnacle and Compass.")


(Pronounced "flues" by seamen). The barb-shaped extremities of the arms of an anchor.
Flush deck.-- When the deck has no raised or sunken part.
The part of a flag which blows out; the opposite side to the hoist; the halyards are bent to the hoist.
Flying Jib.--
A jib set in vessels on the flying jib. boom. There is then the jib, the outer jib, and flying jib, or inner jib, jib, and flying jib; probably called flying jib because unlike the others it is not set on a stay. A yacht's jib topsail is sometimes termed a "flying jib " but, being set on a stay, this is incorrect.
Flying Light.--
Said of a vessel when she has been lightened in ballast so as to float with her proper load-line out of water.
Flying Start.--
In match sailing a start made under way. In the old days yachts started from anchor or from moorings. This practice has long since been abandoned, and all starts in yacht races are flying starts. (See "Yacht Racing Rules.")
Flying To.--
When a vessel, in sailing free, luffs suddenly, or comes to suddenly; also after tacking, if a vessel's head is kept much off the wind, and the helm be put amidships, the vessel will fly to, i.e. fly to the wind quickly. A vessel that carries a hard weather helm will fly to directly the tiller is released.
Fly up in the Wind.--
When a vessel is allowed to come head to wind suddenly.
Foot.-- The lower edge of a sail. (See "Forefoot.")
Fore.-- Front; contrary of aft; the forward part.
Fore-and-aft.-- Running from forward aft, in a line with the keel.
Fore-and-aft Rig.--
Like a cutter or schooner; without yards, with all the sails tacked and sheeted in a line with the keel.
The fore part of a ship which is forward of the greatest transverse section.
The space under deck before the mast allotted to the seamen.
Fore Deck.--
The deck before the mast.
Fore Foot.--
The foremost part of the keel at its intersection with the stem under water.
Fore Guy.--
The stay of a square sail boom or spinnaker boom which leads forward.
The mast which occupies the most forward position in a vessel.
Fore Peak.--
The forecastle, a space decked over forward in a small boat to stow gear in.
The rake the stem has forward beyond a perpendicular dropped to the fore end of the keel.
When one vessel reaches past or sails past another; generally applied in close hauled sailing. Thus it is frequently said that one vessel "fore-reaches but does not hold so good a wind as the other" ; meaning that she passes through the water faster but does not or cannot keep so close to the wind. A vessel is said to fore-reach or head-reach fast that is noted for great speed when sailing by the wind. (See "Head Reach.")
In square rigged ships the large lower sail set on the foremast; in cutters the triangular sail or jib foresail set on the forestay; in fore-and-aft schooners the gaff sail set abaft the foremast.
Foresheet.-- The sheet of the foresail.
Foresheet horse.--
An iron bar for the foresheet to work upon.
The jib foresail set on the forestay of schooners; properly "stay-foresail."
Fore-topman. - In a schooner yacht a man stationed aloft to work the fore-topsail tack and sheet in going about.
The topmast over the foremast.
The yard on the foremast for setting the foresail in square-rigged ships.
Forge Ahead.--
When a vessel that is hove to gathers way; generally when a vessel moves past another.
Entangled, not clear. To touch another yacht.
Foul Anchor.--
When an anchor gets a turn of the cable round its arms or stock; when imbedded among rocks, &c., so that it cannot be readily recovered. Also a pictorial anchor with a cable round the shank, &c.
Foul Berth.--
When two vessels which are anchored or moored have not room to swing without fouling each other. If a vessel is properly moored and another fouls her berth she is held liable for any damage which may ensue.
Foul Bottom.--
A rocky bottom; also the bottom of a ship when it is covered with weeds, &c.
Foul Hawse.--
When moored if the cables get crossed by the vessel swinging with the tide. (See "Hawse.")
The timbers or ribs of a vessel.
A rope put round the parts of a tackle or other ropes which are some distance apart, to draw them together and increase their tension or prevent them overhauling. Frequently a frapping is put on the parts of the head sheets, especially on the jib topsail sheet, to draw them down to the rail, and thus bring a strain on the leech and foot.
Frapping a Ship.--
Passing a chain cable or hawser round the hull of a ship to keep her from falling to pieces when she is straining in a heavy sea. Formerly common with timber ships.
Free. -Not close hauled. When a vessel is sailing with a point or two to come and go upon. The wind is said to free a vessel when it enables her to check sheets so as to be no longer close hauled. Also when it enables a vessel that is close hauled to lie nearer her course, as "the wind frees her."
The side of a vessel which is above water.


French Nautical Terms.
Fresh Breeze.-- See "Wind."
Freshen.-- To alter the strain upon a rope.
Freshen Hawse.--
To veer out or heave cable, so that a different part will take the chafe of the hawse pipe.
Freshen the Nip.--
To shift a rope, etc., so that its nip, or short turn, or bight, may come in another part. In slang, to quench a desire for drink.
When all the sails are filled with the wind and quite steady.
Full Aft.-- When a vessel is said not to taper sufficiently aft.
Full and Bye.--
Sailing by the wind or close hauled, yet at the same time keeping all the sails full so that they do not shake through being too close to wind. Generally a vessel does better to windward when kept a" good full and bye" than when nipped or starved of wind.
Full and Change.-- Phases of the moon.
Full Bowed.-- The same as bluff bowed.
Funeral Salute.-- See " Salutes."
Furl.-- To roll a sail up on a yard, etc.


The timbers which abut above the floors called first, second, and third futtocks. This should properly be written foothooks.



The yard to which the head of a fore-and-aft sail is bent. (See "Jaws.")
Gaff Topsail.--
The topsail set over a gaff sail, such as the topsail set over a cutter's mainsail. Sometimes the sail has a head yard, and sometimes not.
A long narrow rowing boat propelled by six or eight oars. A boat a little longer and heavier than a yacht's gig.
Galley or Galley Fire.--
The caboose, or kitchen of a vessel.
Frames of oak erected above the dock in ships to carry spare spars on or the spanker boom instead of a crutch.
Gammon Iron.--
An iron hoop fitted to the side of the stem, or on top of the stem, as a span-shackle, to receive and hold the bowsprit.
The lashings which secure the bowsprit to the stem piece, and are passed backward and forwards in the form of an X, over the bowsprit. Now generally chain is used. In yachts, an iron band or hoop, called the gammon iron or span-shackle, is fitted to the stem, through which the bowsprit passes.
The opening in the bulwarks, or side, through which persons enter or leave a vessel. Used generally as a passage, or thoroughfare of any kind. "Don't block the gangway," is a common admonition to thoughtless people who stand about in passages or thoroughfares, to the impediment of passers.
Gangway Ladder.--
The steps hung from the gangway outside the vessel. Sometimes there is also a board, or kind of platform, called the "Gangway Board." (See "Accommodation Ladder.")
A whip purchase; a single block with a rope rove through it. A gant-line is used to hoist the rigging to the masthead on beginning to fit out.
The strake of plank next above the keel into which it is rabbeted and bolted.
A strop put round spars when they are hoisted on board.
A kind of tackle used for hoisting things out of the hold of vessels; also used for clewing up square sails.
Pieces of rope, sometimes plaited, by which sails when furled are kept to the yards. The pieces of rope by which sails are secured when furled, such as the tyers of the mainsail, by which that sail, when rolled up on the boom, is secured. (See "Tyers.")
Gather Way.--
When a vessel begins to move through the water, under the influence of the wind on her sails, or under the influence of steam. (See "Steerage Way.")
Gawlor or Gowler.--
An open boat which can either be rowed or sailed, common to Portsmouth watermen. They are very skillfully handled by the watermen, and go backwards and forwards to Spithead and elsewhere in ail kinds of weather, and seldom meet with mishaps. They are sharp sterned, like the bow, and are rigged with sprit, mainsail, and mizen, and a foresail. They have no boom to the mainsail.
Get a Pull.-- To hand on a sheet or tack or fall of a tackle.
Getting Soundings Aboard.-- Running aground.
A long boat of four or six oars kept for the owner of a yacht. In gig races a boat should not be considered a gig if she has less than 1ft. of breadth for every 7ft. of length, and 3/4-in. depth amidships for every foot of length. At the regatta held at Itchen ferry by yachtmasters a "gig must not exceed 28ft. in length, and be in the proportions of 28ft. long, 4ft. broad, and 1ft. 8in. deep." A boat could be shorter if these proportions were maintained.
To gill a vessel along is to sail her very near the wind, so that very little of the weight of the wind is felt on the sails which are kept lifting and only hare steerage way kept an the vessel. A vessel is generally "gilled " (pronounced "jilled") through heavy squalls or very broken water.
The cross axles by which compasses, lamps, &c., are swung on board ship. Often called "double gimbals." In Fig. 42 a a are the axles of the outer ring R, and x x of the inner ring M.
To moor a vessel so that she cannot swing by tide or wind. To draw a sail into puckers; to divide the belly of a sail into bags as by a rope.
FIG 42.
Girt-line.-- (See "Gant-line.")
The measurement round the vessel. The girth is generally measured at a station 0.55 from the fore end of the L.W.L. It is taken in two separate ways--i.e., by skin or by chain. The skin girth is taken by following the skin surface of the plank or body right round under the keel, from gunwale to gun. wale. The chain girth is taken at the same place and between the same points with the string, tape, or chain pulled taut. The difference between the two girths is called the "d" measurement. (See also "d.")
Give Her.--
A general prefix to an order, as "Give her sheet";" Give her the jibheaded topsail;" "Give her chain," &c.
Give Her the Weight of It.--
An admonition to a helmsman to sail a vessel a good heavy full when close-hauled.
Give Way.--
The order to a boat's crew to commence rowing or to pull with more force or more quickly.
Giving the Keel.--
Heeling over suddenly and bringing the keel near the surface; vessels that are not very stiff under canvas are said to "give the keel."
The term by which a sailor knows the barometer. Also a telescope, and the sand glass used to denote half-hours on board ship, or the half-minute or quarter-minute glass used when heaving the log.
Glass Calm.--
When it is so calm that the sea looks like a sheet of glass. (See "Clock Calm.")
Glue for Paper.--
For joining paper, cardboard or model work, or similar articles, a good glue can be made thus: dissolve 2oz. of the best transparent glue in 1/4pt. of strong cider vinegar. Let it simmer slowly by placing the dish containing it in a dish of boiling water. When it has become liquid, add 1oz. of highest proof alcohol, and keep it tightly corked. If cold, heat in hot water when needed for use.
Go About.-- To tack.
Go Ahead !-- The order to the engineer of a steam vessel. Also "Go astern;" "Easy ahead;" "Easy astern;" "Stop her!"
Go Down.-- To sink. To go down below.
Going Large.-- The same as sailing with the wind free. (See "Large.")
Going Through Her Lee.--
When one vessel overtakes and passes another vessel to leeward; considered to be a very smart thing for a vessel to do if they are close together and of equal size.
Good Conduct Money.--
A douceur of one shilling or more a week given to men at the end of a season for good behaviour, and withheld for the week in which any offence or offences were committed. (See "Conduct Money.")
Good Full.--
Same as "Clean Full," or little fuller than "Full and By."
An iron jointed bolt used to fix the end of booms to the mast, &c.
Goose Wing, To.--
A schooner "goose wings" when dead before the wind by booming out the gaff foresail on the opposite side to the mainsail. An uncertain operation, and a practice not now in much use, as the introduction of spinnakers has made it unnecessary. (See "Wing and Wing.")
Goose Wings.--
The lower part or clews of sails when the upper part is furled or brailed up; used for scudding in heavy weather.
Graduated Sail.--
A sail whose cloths taper towards the head from the foot upwards; so that a whole cloth forms the luff as well as the leech. Manufactured by Gordon, of Southampton, and Summers and Hewitt, of Cowes.
Granny Knot.--
An insecure knot which a seaman never ties, but which a landsman is sometimes seen to do when trying his hand at reef knots. (See "Knots.")
A grappling iron with four claws used to moor small boats by or to drag the bed of the sea.
Open woodwork put in the bottom of boats, in gangways, &c.
Graving.-- Cleaning a vessel's bottom.
Graving Dock.--
A dock which can be emptied of water by opening the gates as the tide falls, and its return prevented as the tide rises by closing the gates. Used for clearing the bottoms of vessels, repairing the same, &c.
Weight. The centre of gravity is the common centre of a weight or weights.
Great Guns.-- A heavy wind is said to "blow great guns."
Green Hand.--
A landsman shipped on board a vessel, and who has yet to learn his duties.
Green Horn.--
A conceited simpleton, incapable of learning the duties of a seaman.
Green Sea.--
The unbroken mass of water that will sometimes break on board a vessel as distinct from the mere bucketfulls of water or spray that may fly over her. Such bodies of water always have a green appearance, while smaller quantities look grey, hence, we suppose, the term.
A large cross framing over which a vessel is placed at high water in order that her bottom may be examined as the tide falls.
A vessel is said to grin when she dives head and shoulders into a sea and comes up streaming with water.
The fore part of the dead wood of a vessel; the forefoot.
Gripe, To.--
A vessel is said to gripe when she has a tendency to fly up in the wind, and requires weather helm to check or "pay off" the tendency. (See "Weather helm.")
Grommet or Grummet.--
A ring formed of a single strand of rope laid over three times. Used for strops, &c. (Fig. 43) .
The act of getting aground or taking the ground as the tide falls.
FIG 43.
Ground Sea, Ground Swell.--
The swell that may be seen along shore sometimes, whilst in the offing the sea is calm.
Ground Tackle.--
The moorings, anchors, chains, &c., used in securing a vessel.
Ground Ways.--
The blocks on which a vessel is supported whilst she is being built.
Metal eye bolts fitted to the stern post to receive the pintles of the rudder. (See "Braces.")
FIG. 44.
Gunter or Sliding Gunter (See Figs. 44 and 45).--
Not to be confounded with the modern gunter lug which is really a cross between a high-peaked gaff sail and a Clyde lug. It has jaws on the heel of the yard or gaff, which is usually curved. Either one or two halyards are used.
In small boats the timber which fits over the timber heads, and is fastened to the top strake. (See "Inwale.")
Gunwale Under.-- Heeling until the lee gunwale is in the water.
Guy.-- A rope used to steady or support a spar.
FIG 45.
Gybing (also spelt jibing).--
To keep a vessel so much off the wind that at last it blows on the opposite quarter and causes the sails to shift over. The opposite of tacking, which is to come to the wind until it blows on the opposite bow of the vessel to the one on which it has been blowing.
Gyvers.-- Tackles.








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