Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and Architecture

(11th and final edition, 1913)


To speak to a ship at sea by signals or otherwise. To attract the attention of a ship by singing out "Ship ahoy!" or "Neptune ahoy." To "hail from" a locality is to belong to a particular place by birthright.
Half-breadth Plan.--
A drawing showing the horizontal sections or waterlines of a vessel by halves.
The width of horizontal sections at particular points; also half-breadths on diagonal lines.
Hall-mast High.--
Hoisting a burgee or ensign only halfway up as a mark of respect to a person who has recently died.
Halyards or Halliards.-- Ropes for hauling up sails, yards, &c., by.
Hammock.-- A canvas bed swung to the deck beams.
Hand.-- To hand a sail is to stow, furl, or take in; hence a sail is said to be "handed" when either of these operations has been performed.
Hand.-- A man. A member of a ship's crew.
Handing a Sail.-- To hand a sail is to stow it or take it in.
Hand Lead.-- See "Lead."
Handle Her.--
The act of controlling the movements of a vessel. An admonition to the crew to be smart in working the sheets in tacking or gybing. Also a steamboat master is said to "handle" his vessel in bringing her alongside a wharf. pier, &c.
Hand Masts.--
Certain spars of Riga fir the girth of which is expressed in hands of 4in. Thus a mast which was 6-1/2 hands, or 6-1/2 x "4in." in circumference would be 26in. in girth, or about 8-1/2 in. in diameter. (The circumference is the diameter multiplied by 3.1416.)
Hand over Fist.-- See "Hand over Hand."
Hand over Hand.--
Hauling on a rope by one hand at a time and passing one hand rapidly over the other to haul. A very rapid way of hauling, hence anything done rapidly is said to be done "hand over hand."
Hand Sail.-- See "Sailing on Skates." .
Steadily; with care. Not too fast nor yet too slow, but with great care; cleverly. As "Lower away handsomely." In easing up a sheet, if the man is likely to let it fly, the master or mate will sing out, "Handsomely there !" meaning that the man is to ease up the sheet carefully, not letting too much run out, nor yet letting it come up with a jerk, nor yet allowing it to run away with him.
Handspike.-- A bar of wood, used as a lever.
Hand Taut.--
As tight or taut as a rope can be got by the hand without swigging upon it.
A vessel is said to be handy when she answers her helm quickly, and will turn in a small circle, or go from one tack to the other quickly.
Handy Billy.--
A watch tackle kept on deck for general use to get a pull on whatever is required, such as sheets, tacks, or halyards.
To lean towards. To hang to windward is to make but little leeway. "Hang on here!" an order for men to assist in hauling.
Hanging Compass.--
A compass suspended under the beams with the face of the card downwards; termed also a "Telltale Compass."
Hanging Knee.--
Knees that help keep the beams and frame together ; one arm is bolted to the under side of a beam, the other to the frame.
Hank for Hank.-- Slang for "tack for tack."
Rings or hooks made of rope, wood, or iron for fastening the luff of sails to stays. Iron rings are usually used for the stay foresail; iron spring hooks for the balloon foresail and jib topsail.
Various ingenious contrivances have been invented for securing sails to stays, &c., and Ramsay's patent keys are much used. Mr. Delap has adapted these for yacht purposes,
FIG 46.
FIG 47.
and the first shown (Fig. 46) is for the fore staysail, the circular part travelling on the stay. Fig. 47 is for mast hoop attachments. The luff of the sail would be passed into the jaws, and then the key pushed through an eyelet hole and turned.
Fig. 48 is a sheet shackle to supersede the usual toggle. The form of the head of the key precludes the possibility of its fouling any gear.
Mr. J. W. Collins, writing on the rig of fishing boats, says that a method adopted by the American fishermen for bending and unbending their riding sails would, doubtless, be well suited for the fore-and-aft-rigged English drift net boats. The "riding sail" referred to is a small three-cornered sail, which is bent to the mainmast when a schooner is riding at anchor, to keep her steady and head to the wind. The sail is set temporarily, and it is therefore desirable that the arrangements may be such that it can be bent or unbent with as little delay as possible. For this purpose ordinary mast hoops are used; but about one-quarter of their length (where they are joined together) is sawed out, leaving square ends, to each of which is fastened an iron hook.
Fig. 49 shows how the hoops are fitted, and Fig. 50 shows how the thimble toggles are attached to the luff of the sail at regular intervals. The thimbles are slipped over the hooks on the ends of the hoops. The sail can be bent almost as fast as it can be hoisted.
Harbour Master.--
An officer whose duty it is to see that vessels are properly berthed and moored in harbours. His authority cannot be disputed with impunity, as, in nine cases out of ten, if a dispute with a harbour master gets into court the decision will be for the harbour master.
FIG. 48.
Harbour Watch.--
The watch kept on board a vessel at night when she is riding to an anchor in harbour; the anchor watch.
A landing place, usually made of gravel, piles, &c., across mud, as the "Common Hard," Portsea, where the small boats land and take in passengers.
Hard Down.--
The order to put the helm hard-a-lee. Also the tiller may be put hard-a-port; hard-a-starboard; hard-a-weather; hard up.
Hard In.-- Sheets are said to be hard in when a vessel is close-hauled.
Hard Up.-- The tiller as far to windward as it can be got for bearing away.
Pieces of timber or battens that are fitted around the frames of a vessel in an unbroken line to keep the frames in their places before the plank is put on.
A weapon like a spear with a flat, barbed, sharp head; the other end has a socket into which the wooden part is fitted, the whole making a long spear. The line is attached to the iron and the wooden part of the shank. The coil of rope is 130 fathoms. Modern harpoons are fired from a small cannon.
The bowman of a whale boat, who throws the harpoon or fires the gun.
Harpoon log.--
This is generally known as "Walker's" log, and is different from Massey's, inasmuch as the blades which give the rotation are attached to the part which holds the wheel work. In Massey's log the rotation is attached to the part containing the works by a piece of cord a yard or so long; the cord of course revolves with the spinning of the fly, and imparts motion to the wheel work.
FIG. 49.
FIG. 50.
Harpoon Sounding Machine.--
A contrivance on the principle of the patent log such as Walker's, used for taking deep soundings. As the machine sinks the fly or fan blades rotate, and register by the aid of wheel work the distance sunk.
Hatches or Hatchways.--
Openings in the deck. In a yacht there is usually the fore hatch used by the crew, and the sail room hatch aft. Generally the coverings for hatchways are termed hatches, but strictly this is inaccurate, and the correct term would be hatch covers.
Hatchway Coamings.--
The raised frame above the deck upon which the hatches or hatch covers rest.
Haul.-- To pull on a rope.
Haul Aft the Sheets.-- The order to haul in the sheets for close-hauled sailing.
Haul Her Wind.--
To become close-hauled after sailing free. Generally to sail closer to the wind when sailing free. Haul to the wind. Haul on the wind.
Hauling up a Small Yacht.--
The yacht should first be lightened of all movable weights such as ballast and spars and general outfit.
This having been done, four 2-1/2-in. or 3-in. deal planks must be provided, with four rollers 5ft. or 6ft. long and 3-1/2-in. diameter. The yacht should then be cradle with a very stout rope or reliable piece of chain, which should he lowered so far as the rabbet of the garboard strake, and be supported at that level by small lines under the quarters and at the bow above the forefoot, where the ends should he firmly secured with a lashing.
A crab winch with a large double and single block is commonly used for heaving up, which must be firmly fixed by driving posts into the ground. On an inland lake, the first part of the business is the most difficult, for as the water will not leave the boat to allow adjustment of the preliminaries, the boat must be made to leave the water; and to do this, the deals, which will do the duty of ways, must be got under her by loading the ends at the under sides. Two of the rollers should be made of sinking wood, and the yacht having been laid on her side, she should be hauled in until aground, and being still waterborne, the first roller can then be introduced under her, and shortly a second and third, when she can be hauled out of the water as the rollers travel on the deals.
Greased planks must also be placed under the bilge. Four men should turn the winch handles, and not less than two must attend the rollers to watch and keep them square on the ways, which is done by striking the ends of them with a maul or small sledge hammer when they commence getting out of square. If the yacht is to be continually kept on this inland lake, it might be worthwhile to have an iron carriage made for her, consisting of an oblong frame of the length of a third of her load waterline, with 6in. iron wheels, with edges or rims.
Edge rails for this can be nailed to the four deal ways, and a stout oak or elm plank could be bolted to the framework of the carriage. This plank should be, say, a foot wide and 2-1/2in. thick, and about 6in. longer each side than the extreme breadth of the vessel, which should be provided with legs cut with tenons or having bolts to go through holes or sockets in this plank. The legs should be secured to the vessel's sides with through bolts, with either lever or butterfly nuts on the inside, screwing on against a metal plate. When this little temporary railway is once obtained, hauling the yacht up will be a very simple matter, and she may remain on one deal's length of it as long as required.
There should be a hole in the forefoot, and also at the same level close to the sternpost, by which the yacht can be lashed square on the carriage, as soon as she is far enough out of the water; and when in the desired position she can be shored up by four shores, one under each quarter, and others under each bow, and a portion of ballast might be put on board, unless she has already sufficient lead or iron on her keel to steady her against violent gusts of wind, which have very great power on the side of any craft in an exposed position, and against which provision must be made.
If such a carriage as above described is made, the rails will, of course, be carefully adjusted to the correct width, so that the wheels will travel easily on them, and about a foot from each end of the deal ways an iron plate should be screwed with socket holes to receive a clamp or sleeper bar, the ends turned down to form tenons to go into these socket plates, which will keep the rails and deals square with each other. By shifting the after pair of rails as required, it is evident that the yacht may be removed any reasonable distance on flat or nearly flat ground, with facility.
Haul Round a Mark, Point, &c.--
When a vessel in sailing free has to come closer to the wind as her course alters round a point, buoy, &c. By hauling in the sheets the vessel will sometimes luff sufficiently without any help from the helm.
Haul the Boom Aboard !-
An order to get the main boom hauled in on the quarter for close-hauled sailing.
Haul Up.--
To hoist a sail. A vessel is said to "haul up" when she comes, or is brought nearer the wind or nearer her course if she has been sailing to leeward of it. Haul up a point, haul up to windward of that buoy, &c.
Hawse Bags.--
Canvas bags filled with oakum, used in a heavy sea to stop the hawse holes, and prevent tile admission of water. Wooden hawse plugs are generally used in a yacht.
Hawse Pipe.--
The pipes in the hawse holes in the how through which the cables pass.
Richard Falconer, in his Dictionary published at the end of the last century says, there are some terms in the sea language which have also immediate relation to the hawse, as :
"A bold hawse," signifies the holes are high above the water. [This would be equivalent to saying that the ship was high at the bows.]
"Veer out more cable" is the order when a part of the cable which lies in the hawse is fretted or chafed, and by veering out more cable another part rests in the hawse.
"Fresh the hawse" is an order to lay new pieces upon the cable in the hawse to preserve it from fretting. [The above two terms are applied to hemp cables.]
"Burning in the hawses" is when the cables endure a violent stress.
"Clearing the hawses" is the act of disentangling two cables that come through different hawse.
"To ride hawse full" is when in stress of weather a ship falls with her head deep in the sea, so that the water runs in at the hawse.
"Athwart hawse" is when anything crosses the hawse of a ship close ahead, or actually under and touching the bows; as "she fell athwart our hawse, and her aide was stove in."
"Cross hawse," when the cables out 'of different holes cross on the stem as an X. Distinct from "clear hawse," which is when each cable leads direct to the anchor from its hawse hole.
"Foul hawse," when the cables are crossed in any way by the ship swinging round.
Hawser.-- A large rope laid up with the sun or right-handed.
Hawse Timbers.--
The large timbers in the bows of ships in which the hawse holes are cut.
The fore part of a vessel. The upper part of a sail. "By the head" means pressed or trimmed down by the head, in contradistinction of "by the stern." To head is to pass ahead of another vessel.
Head Earings.-- The earings of the upper part of a squaresail, &c.
The direction of a vessel's head when sailing. Generally used when sailing close hauled, as "she headed S.E. on port tack, and N.E. on starboard tack." In such cases it is never said she "steered S.E.," &c., as practically the vessel is not steered, but her course alters with the wind. A vessel "steers" such and such a course when she is sailing with the wind free.
Headland.-- A high cliff or point.
Headmost.-- The first in order.
Head Reach.--
In sailing by the wind when a vessel passes another either to windward or to leeward. A vessel is said to "head-reach" when she is hove to, but forges ahead a knot or two. (See "Fore-reach.")
Head Rope.-- The rope to which the head of a sail is sewn.
Head Sails.-- A general name for all sails set forward of the foremost mast.
Head Sea.--
The sea met when sailing close-hauled. In the case of a steamship she may meet the sea stem on.
Heed Sheets.-- The sheets of the head sails.
Head to Wind.--
When a vessel is so situated that the wind blows no more on one bow than the other; when her head is directly pointed to the wind.
Head Way.-- When a vessel moves ahead through the water.
Head Wind.--
A wind that blows directly down the course a vessel is desired to sail. A foul wind. To be headed by the wind is when the wind shifts so that a vessel cannot lie her course, or puts her head off to leeward of the course she had been heading.
A sort of deadeye made of lignum vitae with one large hole in it to pass a lanyard through turn after turn instead of through three holes, as in an ordinary deadeye. They are something like a heart in shape, and the lower one is iron bound; the stay goes round the upper one either by a spliced eye or an eye seizing; also used for jib sheet.
Heart Thimble.--
A thimble shaped like a heart put in the eye splices of ropes. These are usually made solid for rigging screws.
To bring a strain or drag upon a capstan bar, purchase, &c. To throw, as "heave overboard."
Heave About.-- To go into stays to tack.
Heave Ahead.-- To draw a vessel ahead by heaving on her cable, warp, &c.
Heave and Pawl.--
In heaving on the windlass or capstan to give a sort of jerking heave, so that the pawl may be put in, and so prevent "coming up," or the cable flying out again. Also, in heaving on the mast winches "heave and pawl" is generally used in the sense of "belay;" that is stop heaving at the next fall of the pawl.
Heave and Rally.--
An order to encourage the men to heave with energy when there is a difficulty in breaking the anchor out of the ground.
Heave and Sight.--
A call given after the anchor is off the ground, and when it is known to be near the surface on account of the muddy condition of the water it is making in consequence of the mud on the flukes. Literally it means one more heave and you will see the anchor above water.
Heave and Stand to your Bars !-
An order given after heaving until the vessel is over the anchor to give another heave as the bow descends with the sea and then stand fast, as in all probability the next time she scends, or lifts, her head with the sea she will break the anchor out of the ground.
Heave and Weigh.-- The last heave of the capstan that breaks the anchor out.
Heave Down.--
To careen a vessel by putting tackles on her mastheads from a hulk or wharf, and heeling her so as to get at her aide which was under water for repairs, &c. A vessel is said to be hove down by a squall when she does not right immediately.
Heave in Stays.-- The same as heave about.
Heave Short.--
To heave on the cable until the vessel is over the anchor, or the cable taut in a line with the forestay, so that with another heave, or by the action of the sails, the anchor will be broken out of the ground.
Heave the Lead.-- The order to cast the lead for sounding.
Heave the Log.-- The order to throw the log ship overboard to test the rate of sailing.
Heave To.--
To so trim a vessel's sails aback that she does not move ahead. The same as "lie to" or "lay to" as sailors call it. If the gale be a fair one the ship usually scuds before it; if a foul one she heaves to.
The lower after end of anything, as heel of the keel, heel of the mast (the fore part of the lower end of a mast is called the toe), heel of a yard, heel of the bowsprit. The amount of list a vessel has.
Heeler.-- A heavy puff that makes a boat heel.
Heel Rope.-- The rope by which a running bowsprit or topmast is hauled up or out.
Heel, To.-- To incline, to careen, to list over, to depart from the upright.
Height.-- A distance measured in a vertical direction, as height of freeboard, &c.
The apparatus for steering a vessel, usually applied only to the tiller. The word is derived from Saxon helma or healma, a rudder; German helm, a handle and a rudder.
Helm's A-lee.--
The usual call made in tacking or in going about, as a signal for the crew to work the sheets, &c. The helm is a-lee when the tiller is "put down" or to leeward. (See "Lee Helm" and "Weather Helm.")
Helm Port.-- The rudder trunk in the counter.
Helm, to Port the.--
To put the helm or tiller to the port side, and thereby bring the vessel's head round to starboard. If a wheel is used besides a tiller the action of turning the wheel to port brings the vessel's head round to port, as the tiller is moved by the chains to starboard. Thus with a wheel, when the order is given to port the wheel is turned to starboard. The rule observed in French war ships and merchant ships, since 1876, is this : The order to "port" means to turn the vessel's head to port; and the order to "starboard" to turn the vessel's head to starboard.
Helm, to Put Down the.--
To put the tiller to leeward and thereby bring the vessel to the wind, or luff; the contrary action to putting up the helm.
Helm, to Put Up the.--
To bring the tiller to windward, so that the rudder is turned to leeward, and consequently the head of the vessel goes off to leeward or "off the wind."
Helm, to Starboard the.-- To put the tiller the way opposite to port.
Helm, to Steady the.--
To bring the helm or tiller amidships after it has been moved to port or starboard, as the case may be.
The man who steers a vessel. If a man can sail a vessel well on a wind he is generally termed a good "helmsman," and not steersman.
Hermaphrodite Brig.--
A two-masted vessel, square-rigged forward, and fore-and-aft canvas only on mainmast, usually called a brigantine.
High and Dry.--
The situation of a vessel that is ashore when the ebb tide leaves her dry.
High Water: Full and Change.--
On all coast charts the time of high water at the full moon and new moon is set down, the time of high water at the full moon and new moon always occurring at the same hour throughout the year; therefore, if the time of high water at full and change (new moon) is known, and the age of the moon, the time of high water for any particular day can be roughly calculated, about twenty-five minutes being allowed for each tide.
To make a vessel broader on the beam about the waterline. It is an American term, and became generally known in England in connection with the celebrated American yacht Sappho. After her defeat by the English yacht Cambria, in the match round the Isle of Wight in 1868, she was taken to New York and hipped; that is, her planking was stripped off amidships, and each frame backed with timber, so that the vessel might be made to have more beam about the waterline. The backing is "faired" to the frames and then planked over. Sometimes, if it is not sought to give the vessel more than five or six inches more beam, the hipping is accomplished by a doubling of plank; in such cases a rabbet is ant for the edges of the new plank in the old plank; the seam is then caulked and payed. If the new planks were worked to a feather edge water would get underneath, and it might soon bring about decay.
Hire of a Yacht.--
The hire of yachts varies from 30s. per ton per month to 40s. per ton. Usually the owner pays all wages, including those of the steward and cook, unless the hirer specially desires to engage his own cook and steward; also often provides for the mess of the master and mate. The crew always provision themselves; the owner clothes the crew. The hirer pays insurance. The exact details of hiring are usually a matter of special arrangement. Sometimes at the end of a season, if a yacht is already fitted out, she may be hired for a less price per month. When a yacht is wanted on hire, the best plan is to advertise.
For a form of agreement, which can, of course, be varied, see the section which follows.
Hiring a Yacht (Agreement for).-- Memorandum of Agreement made and entered into between ___ , owner of the yacht ___ , of or about tons ___ y.m., and hereinafter termed the owner, on the one part, and ___ hereinafter termed the hirer, on the other part, whereby the said owner agrees to let and the said hirer agrees to hire the said ___ yacht ___ for the period of ___ calendar months from the ___ day of ___ to the ___ day of ___ for the sum of ___ as rent to be paid in the manner following, that is to say, the sum of ___ on the signing of this agreement, receipt of which sum is hereby acknowledged, and the balance at the expiration of the said term of hire, less any sum or sums advanced to the captain on account of current wages for himself and crew, which said advances the owner hereby authorised to be made and the hirer agrees to make if required, but not to exceed the total sum of ___ during the aforesaid period.
The owner agrees to provide an efficient crew to manage and navigate the said yacht, consisting of master, mate, , and to clothe them and pay them their wages, but the hirer agrees to find his own steward and to pay him his wages. The owner agrees to leave such glass, crockery, and such linen as the yacht is provided with for the hirer's use, but the hirer agrees to find his own plate and cutlery.
The hirer agrees to pay for any damages or losses in or about the said yacht which shall not be recoverable under the clauses of the policy of insurance, which shall include the twenty pounds damage clause and the naval collision clause.
The hirer agrees to take over the said yacht at the port of ___ on the said
___ day of ___ , she being in all respects ready for sea, and to redeliver her at the expiration of the said term of ___ at the port of ___ in the like good order as that in which he received her, reasonable wear and tear only excepted, provided always that in the event of the said yacht meeting with any accident to her hull or machinery whereby the hirer is deprived of her use for a period of not less than forty eight hours, or if the hirer is deprived of the use of the yacht through any strike, mutiny, or disaffection on the part of the crew, such accident, strike, mutiny, or disaffection not being brought about by any act or order of the hirer, the owner agrees to allow an extension of the said term for the like number of days the hirer has been deprived of the use of the said yacht from the causes named, but in the event of the hirer not requiring the use of the yacht for such extended period ___ after the said ___ day of ___ , then a pro rata return of rent shall be allowed to him by the owner for such number of days as the hirer may have been deprived of the use of the yacht from the causes named.
It is further agreed that the hirer shall have the option of extending the said term of hire and to pay for the same at the rate of ___ , providing he gives the owner ___ weeks' notice of his intention of so extending the time; and, in all cases of such extension, the conditions named herein shall remain in force, and the owner shall not be bound to extend the time beyond the fortnight named unless he mutually agrees with the hirer so to do.
The hirer agrees to pay all harbour and dock dues, and for bills of health and all customhouse charges and pilotage, and to find and pay for all consumable stores, such as water, coal, oil, cotton waste, and the like, and generally to defray all current expenses in working the yacht during the period of hiring.
Signed, ___ Witness, ___
A mode of fastening a rope. There are many kinds of "hitches," such as Blackwall hitch, timber hitch, clove hitch, rolling hitch, &c. A hitch is also a short tack or board made in close-hauled sailing.
The situation of a vessel when she rises higher in the middle part than at the ends; the opposite of sagged.
Hogging Piece.--
A piece of timber worked upon top of the keel to prevent its hogging or rising in the middle.
The length of the luff of a fore-and-aft sail, or the space it requires for hoisting. The hoist of a flag is the edge to which the roping is stitched.
Hoisting the Pennant.--
A commodore is said to hoist his pennant when he goes on board the first time, as his pennant is then hoisted.
Hoist, To.-- To raise anything by halyards or tackles, &c.
The interior of a ship ; generally understood to mean the space in which cargo, &c., is stowed away.
Hold a Good Wind.-- To sail close to the wind.
Hold her Head Up.--
A vessel is said to "hold her head up" well that does not show a tendency to fall off.
Holding On.-- To continue sailing without altering a course or shifting sail.
Holding On to the Land.--
To keep the land aboard in sailing; not departing from the land.
Holding Water.--
Resting with the blades of the oars in water to check a boat's way or atop her.
Hold On.--
The order given after hauling on a rope not to slack any up, as "Hold on all that."
Hold On the Fore Side.--
If, when hauling on the fall of a tackle, some of the hands have hold of it on the tackle side of the belaying pin, the hand that has to belay sings out, "Hold on the fore side" to those in front of him, and "Come up behind" to those behind. The hands on the fore side thus hold the fall and keep it from running through the blocks whilst it is being belayed. (See "Come Up.")
Hollow Lines.--
The horizontal lines of a vessel that have inflections.
Hollow Masts.--
Hollow wooden masts are prohibited under the International Rules in the classes above 10 metres (32.8ft.), and hollow metal masts are prohibited in all classes up to 23 metres (75.4ft.) inclusive. Racing yachts of 10 metres and under use hollow wooden masts.
Hollow Sea.-- When the waves have a short, steep, and deep trough.
Hollow Spars.--
All racing yachts use hollow spars-boom, gaff, spinnaker-boom, topsail yard and jackyard, and topmast are constructed of hollow wood. The tree is sawn down the middle and the centre scooped out, the parts are generally turned end for end, so as to reverse the grain, and then glued together with cement. Fife, of Fairlie; Robertson, of Sandbank, Argyllshire; Camper and Nicholson, Gosport; Aldous, Brightlingsea; Hollwey, of Dublin; and Turk, of Kingston-on-Thames, are makers of hollow wooden spars for racing yachts.
Any operation that is completely performed, as "sheeted home" when the clew of a sail is hauled out to the last inch, &c. An anchor is said to come home when it breaks out of the ground.
Hood.-- A covering for skylights, sails, &c.
Hood Ends.--
The ends of the plank which are fitted into the rabbet of the stem or stern poet; termed also the hooded ends, meaning probably that they are "housed" or covered in by the rabbet.
Hooker.-- A small coasting craft.
Hoop.-- See "Mast Hoop" and "Spider Hoop."
Horizontal Lines.--
The curved lines on the Half breadth Plan which show the water lines, the plane of each section being parallel to the horizon.
Horizontal Keel.--
A plate of iron fitted to the underside of a boat's keel, a fore-and-aft view showing thus [fig] The plate should be made of iron plate of from 1/8in. to 3/8in. in thickness. For a boat 12ft. long the plate should be 8in. wide at the middle (so as to project about 3in. on either side of the keel), and 8ft. long, tapering each end to the width of the wood keel, to the underside of which it is screwed. The wood keel should extend at least 3in. below the garboards to render the plate effective. It is necessary that the plate should be kept horizontal, or in other words, in the same plane as the horizon; inasmuch as if the keel dips forward or aft the tendency of the plate will be to draw the boat either by the head or stern. A horizontal keel will increase a boat's weatherliness, but not to the extent of a centre board. The deeper the wood keel of the boat is the more effective the horizontal plate will be, as it will clear the eddy water along the garboards, and prevent the possibility of the bilge of the boat as she heels over being lower than the keel. However, if a very deep keel is necessary to make the horizontal plate effective, it may be as well to have another inch or so, and dispense with the plate altogether. The plan does not appear to have met with much favour.
The projections which form the jaws of gaffs or booms. The outer ends of the crosstrees are sometimes termed horns.
Horn Timbers.-- Timbers which help support the counter.
A bar of iron or wood, or a rope for some part of a vessel's rigging to travel upon, such as the mainsheet.
The projections on a mast which support the lower cap, cross trees, and rigging.
To lower a topmast down within the cap. Sometimes in old racing yachts a topmast was fitted with one reef to shorten it about 3 feet. This plan was adopted to set a very large balloon topsail, but had very little to recommend it. Modern racers do not house their topmasts.
Housing of a Mast.-- The part under the deck.
Hove Down.--
Said of a vessel that is very much careened or heeled by the wind or other cause.
Hove her Keel Out.--
Said of a vessel that heels over, so as to show her keel. (Generally used only as a figure of speech.)
Hove in Sight.--
To come into view; said of a sail that appears above the horizon or round a headland; also of the anchor when it comes above water.
Hove in Stays.--
Said of a vessel when she tacks, often meaning that a vessel tacks suddenly.
Hove Short.--
When the cable is hove in so that there is but little more length out than the depth of water.
The condition of a vessel with her head sails aback, so as to deprive her of way. Vessels hove-to on port tack should fill or get way on, if approached by a vessel on the starboard tack; but if the vessel on port tack can, by hailing or otherwise, make the other vessel understand the situation, the latter should give way; this is the custom of the sea, but there is no statutory regulations concerning the point.
Hoy.-- A small vessel. Also an abbreviation of "Ahoy."
Hug the Land.-- To sail along as close to a weather shore as possible.
Hug the Wind.-- To keep very close, or too close to the wind.
Hulk.-- A vessel whose seagoing days are over, but is still useful as a store ship, &c.
Hull.-- The ship, as distinct from her masts and rigging.
Hull Down.~n the sea when only a vessel's spare appear above the horizon.
Hull, To.-- To strike the hull with shot, &c.
Hull-to, or A-hull.--
With all sails furled and the helm lashed to leeward, leaving the waves to do their worst.





<--index  I.



© 2000 Craig O'Donnell
May not be reproduced without my permission.
Go scan your own damn dictionary.

the Cheap PagesJohn's Mother o' Maritime Lists • Top