Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and Architecture

(11th and final edition, 1913)

D. - E.

 D.-- The capital letter D is used by naval architects to denote the displacement or total weight of the yacht and her equipment, generally expressed in pounds or tons.
d.-- The italic letter d is used to denote the difference between the skin girth and the chain girth (approximately amidships) : measured with a tape and expressed in linear measurement generally in feet and decimal feet, or in metres. Hence a big bodied vessel is said to have "a small d measurement" and a fine bodied vessel a "large d measurement.' A bulb keeled vessel thus has "large d measurement."
d Tax.-- A system of measurement of yachts by which the d is taxed and by which full bodied vessels are rated less than fine bodied vessels, thus inducing the designer to evolve a full bodied yacht suitable for cabin accommodation. The system was devised by Mr Alfred Benzon, a Danish yachtsman
Dagger Centre-plate.-- See "Centre-plate."
Dagger Knee.-- A piece of timber crossing the frames diagonally.
Dandy.-- A cutter rigged vessel with lug mizen aft set on a jigger-mast.
Darning the Water.-- When a vessel keeps sailing backwards and forwards, as before a bar harbour or pier, waiting for water or orders, &c.
Davit Guys.-- The stays or ropes used to keep the davits steady.
Davits.-- Strong iron stanchions with arms used for hoisting boats, &c
Dead Calm.-- Without a breath of wind.
Deaden-her-way.-- To stop a vessel's way by backing and filling, or by hauling a sail aback, or by yawing her about with the helm, &c.
Dead Eye.-- A circular block, with three holes in it (crow-foot fashion) without sheaves, formerly used to reeve the lanyards through for setting up the rigging.
Dead Flat.-- The midship section. The term is applied to the middle flat of a ship, where she gets no broader and no narrower ; that is, where the cross sections for some distance amidships are of the same size and form thus the side will present a "dead flat" for some distance; unusual in yachts.
Dead Lights .-- Strong shutters made to fit the outside of cabin windows-closed in bad weather. In yachts small circular lights are generally fitted with iron shutters inside or outside.
Dead on End.-- Said of the wind, when it blows straight down the course a vessel wishes to make. (See "Nose-ender," "Muzzler.")
Dead Reckoning.-- The calculation of a ship's position by the log, the courses she has made, lee way, set of currents, &c without an observation.
Dead Rise.-- The approach the floor timbers of a vessel makes to a vertical. In the case of ships, the frames in the after body are called the dead-risings, because they only rise from the keel at a sharp angle, all the middle frames starting out nearly horizontally from the keel. A yacht is said to have considerable dead rise on a very rising floor, when she is more or less of the V form, but really vessels of the T form have the greatest dead rise, as the heels of the floors forming the framing to take the garboards do rise nearly vertically.
Dead Water.-- The water in a vessel's wake, close to her sternpost, that follows the ship.
Dead Weight.-- Concentrated weight in a vessel's pattern, such as a heavy cargo of ore or ballast.
Dead Wood.-- The solid wood worked on top of the keel forward and aft.
Decimal Equivalents.--
Deck.-- The platforms supported on the beams of ships. The old three deckers had upper deck, main deck, middle deck, lower deck, and orlop deck, no guns being carried on the latter. Below the orlop deck were the hold platforms, or decks. Yachts usually are said to have only one deck, i.e. the upper deck open to the sky; some large yachts, however, have a lower deck, laid and caulked. Smaller yachts have platform beams upon which the platform rests. The platform is the cabin floor or sole.
Deck Caulking and Stopping.-- See "Marine Glue."
Deck, to whiten.-- Make a mixture of 1-lb. oxalic acid to 1 gallon of water. Damp the deck with this and wash off.
Deep Sea Lead (pronounced "dipsey lead").-- A lead of 28-lb. weight attached to a line of 200 fathoms. Now, automatically recording machines are generally used for deep sea soundings. (See "Lead.")
Delivery.-- The quarter wash of a vessel. A yacht is said to have a good delivery if on passing through the water no large waves are raised at and about the quarters; she is then said to leave the water clean, to have a clean wake, clean delivery, or to run the water very clean aft; to have a sweet run, &c.
Demurrage.-- Compensation paid to the owner of a ship when she has been detained longer than reasonable by a freighter or other person at a port.
Depth, Moulded.-- The terms used in ship and yacht building and relating to the depth of vessels are numerous and occasionally confusing. For instance, there is draught of water aft and draught of water forward, extreme draught and mean draught. In a merchant ship, draught aft and extreme draught would most likely be the same, but in many yachts, the extreme draught is amidships, or nearly so, and the draught at the sternpost is frequently less than the extreme draught. The draught forward in most sailing yachts would be a purely fanciful quantity, on account of there being no straight length of keel forward of amidships to measure the draught from. Beyond this, formerly depth or depth of immersion was used to denote draught; and then there was moulded depth, that is the depth from the load line to the rabbet of the keel ; after this came depth of hold, which in a man of war meant depth from the lower deck, or orlop deck, to the ceiling above the kelsons, and in a merchant or carrying ship, or yacht, the depth from the upper deck.
The term "moulded depth" is now never applied to the depth of immersion, and when the term is used it is always understood to mean the depth as defined by Lloyd's, as follows: "The moulded depth of an iron or steel vessel is the perpendicular depth taken from the top of the upper deck beam at the centre at the middle of the length of the vessel to the top of the floors, except in spar and awning deck vessels, in which the depth is measured from the top of the main deck beam. In wooden and composite vessels the moulded depth is also taken to be the perpendicular depth from the top of the upper deck beam at the centre of the vessel amidships to the top of the floor frame." It will be seen that, even with this excellent definition of moulded depth, it may mean a great many things in the case of yachts with very hollow floors and great dead rise, or in the case of yachts with box keels the same as Vanduara, Galatea, and Wendur have. However, there is one definite point to start from in all cases, and that is the "top of the upper deck beam at the centre."
Depth of a Yacht, to Measure.-- Very frequently it is necessary to know accurately the external depth of a yacht from rail to keel, or her draught from load line to keel. The following simple plan is a ready means of obtaining such depth and draught:
To obtain the depth take a straight-edged bar of wood (see e e, Fig. 35) which will be placed across the rail, at right angles to the keel. A small chain, f f, will be passed under the bottom of the yacht, and one end will be made fast on the bar at g, so that the chain just touches the bilge; the chain will be drawn tight, and the other end made fast to bar at h. The distance g h must be accurately measured on the bar, as also, when removed, must the length of the chain which passed from g under the yacht to h. (To obtain the points for the measurement of the chain, it would be found convenient to fasten a small piece of cord or yarn at the points g and h, immediately under the bar, before the chain is cast off.)
Having obtained these measurements, it will be an easy matter to find the depth i j. The distance g h can be laid off to scale, divided in the centre by a perpendicular, i j: half the length of the chain will then be laid off from g and It to intersect the perpendicular, as at j; the distance from i to j on the bar, measured by the scale, will be the depth required. The draught of water of the yacht will of course be found by subtracting her height out of water, from load line to rail, at the points where the depth was taken. If no scale be at hand, the depth can readily be found by calculation. Take half the length g h, which call k l (Fig. 35), and half the length of the chain, which call k m; subtract l from k m; multiply the remainder by the sum of k m and k l added together; the square root of the product will be the required depth. Expressed in algebraic language:
Say k m is 10ft., added to k l 7ft., make 17ft. ; next 7 subtracted from 10 leave 3 and 3 multiplied by 17 make 51. The square root of 51 is 7.1, which would be the required depth. The mean draught would be found by taking the actual draught at several (say 4) equidistant intervals, commencing at the heel of the sternpost and ending at the stem; add these draughts together, and divide the sum by the number of measurements taken, including those at stem and sternpost. If the forefoot is very much rounded away, the measurement at the stem will be 0, but in counting the number of measurements, that for the stem must be included. The Barrow Corinthian Yacht Club formerly included mean depth in their tonnage rule, and adopted, on the suggestion of Mr. R. S. White, the following plan for obtaining depth at any point without calculation. (See Fig. 36.)
A is the keel batten, graduated from centre, in feet and tenths, with slots marked C, at each end, to slide the side or depth battens to the exact beam of yacht.
B B. Side or depth battens, graduated at upper part in feet and tenths from top of keel batten, and secured to keel batten with thumbscrews marked D.
The manner of working is as follows:
Having obtained exact beam of yacht, set the depth battens B B at this distance apart on keel batten A, by means of thumbscrews D tightly screwed up. Dip the keel batten under keel until opposite marks on gunwale, where depth is required to be taken; then bring it close up to keel, and take readings off depth battens B B, until they correspond on each side--this being depth of yacht, keel to gunwale, in vertical line, as shown in sketch.
If the measurements have to be taken in a tideway, the batten A must be kept close up to keel to prevent its driving aft.
Depth of Hold.--In a single-deck vessel, the height between the kelson and deck.
Derelict.-- A vessel abandoned at sea. It is said that an owner's rights are not also abandoned if any live animal be left and found on board.
Derrick.--A kind of crane.
Deviation.-- A movement of the compass needle due to local attraction, principally met with in iron or composite ships, and distinct from variation.
Dhow.-- A large Arab vessel, usually lateen-rigged.
Diagonal Braces.-- Strengthening straps of iron that cross the frames of a vessel diagonally.
Diagonal Lines.--Lines which cross the sections of a vessel shown in the body plan, in a diagonal direction with the middle vertical line.
Diameter of Circle.-- Circumference multiplied by 0.31831.
Diminishing Strakes.--The strakes immediately above and below wales being the thickness of the wale on one edge, and diminishing to the thickness of the plank or' the other.
Dinghy.--A small boat of Bombay, with a settee sail. Also a small skiff, or punt, carried by yachts. (See "Portable Dinghy.")
Dinghy-man.--The man who has charge of the dinghy of a yacht, whose duty it is to go on shore on errands, &c.
Dip.--The inclination the compass needle makes towards the earth in high latitudes.
Dip the Ensign, To.--To lower the ensign as a salute, or token of respect. (See "Dipping the Ensign.")
Dipping Lug Sail.-- A sail hoisted by a halyard and mast hoop traveler. The sail is set to leeward of the mast, and the tack is usually fast to the stem or on the weather bow. In tacking or gybing the sail has to be lowered and the yard shifted to the other side of the mast. A plan has been proposed to perform this dipping by the aid of a topping and tripping line instead of by lowering the sail (see the sketch Fig. 37); but the balance lug, which requires no dipping whatsoever in tacking, is to be preferred to the best dipping arrangement. (See "Penzance Luggers'' and "Split Lug.")
FIG 37
Dipping the Ensign and Burgee.--
The ensign is lowered or dipped as a means of saluting a commodore, &c., or member of a club. The junior member should be the first to dip. Sometimes, if no ensign is flying, the burgee is dipped ; but this strictly is contrary to the etiquette of the Royal Navy. It is usual to" dip" on passing a man-of-war or Royal yacht. A Royal yacht never answers the salute by dipping her ensign. Strictly it is etiquette for the blue ensign to dip to the white ; and red to the blue or white.
A club burgee. being a personal flag, is usually lowered half mast high in the case of death as well as the ensign. (See" Ensign," "Etiquette," "Saluting," &c.
Discharge Ticket.--
A formal document given to seamen when they are discharged.
Dismantled.-- Unrigged: without sails or spars.
Dismasted.-- When a vessel loses her mast by violence or accident.
The quantity or weight of water a vessel displaces, which, in weight, is always equal to the total of her own weight, with everything on board.


Displacement per inch of immersion.--
It is often necessary to now how much weight would have to be put into a yacht to sink her an inch or more deeper in the water or lighten her to a similar extent. Roughly, this can be ascertained by the following rule : Multiply the length on the load line by the breadth on the load line and divide the product by 600.


The quotient will be the weight in tons or fractions of a ton. This rule would not hold good if the yacht were lightened more than three or four inches or deepened to that extent. The rule is based on the assumption that the area of the load line is .7 of the circumscribing parallelogram. That is to say, the length and breadth multiplied together and again multiplied by .7 will (approximately) give the area of load line. Divide this product by 12, and the area is reduced to cubic feet, and divide again by 35 and the answer will be given in tons or fractions of a ton. By this rough rule the displacement per inch at any part of the hull of the vessel (if the measurements are taken at the part) can be found approximately

( LxBx0.7/ (12x35)) = ( LxB/600 )


Powdered colour mixed in strong glue size and applied hot. Sometimes the part to be covered is first coated with lime whitewash. A yellow distemper for funnels is thus made: 6lb. glue made into size and whilst hot added to 2/3 cwt. yellow ochre, 1/3cwt. whiting, reduced to proper consistency by warm water.
The portions of a fleet ; as the starboard port, and centre divisions, the admiral in command always occupying the centre division. Prior to 1856, there were red, white and blue divisions, but now, as only the white or St. George's ensign is recognised, the divisions by colour have been done away with. (See "Admiral.")
A general name for a place to receive ships for repair or cleaning A ship is said to dock herself when placed in a soft tidal bed of mud (t she buries herself in it more or less. A dry dock is a basin into which a ship is floated and the gates closed upon her ; the water is then pumped out and the ship left dry, supported on a framework and by shores.
Places where ships are built ; usually, however, confined to Government yards.
Dog Shores.-- Pieces of timber used in launching ships.
Dog Vane.--
A light vane made of bunting, silk, or feathers, to show the direction of the wind, and sometimes put on the weather rail or topsail yard.
Dog Watches.--
The divided watch between four and eight in the evening ; thus the first dog watch is from four to six, and the second from six to eight. (See "Watches.'')
The state of being becalmed. Parts of the ocean where calms are prevalent.
Dolphins.-- Stout timbers or stone pillars placed on wharfs to make fast warps to.
Dolphin Striker.--
The perpendicular spar under the bowsprit end by which more spread is given to the stay of the jib-boom. In a modern yacht the dolphin striker is a steel strut or spreader fitting into a socket in the stem, and it acts as a spreader to the bobstay. (See "Spreader" and "Strut.")
A flat-bottomed deep boat much used by American fishing schooners. (See Fig. 38.) The American schooner Ingomar in 1904 carried a number of dorys on deck in her passage across the Atlantic, and the late Captain Charles Barr considered them good sea boats, but said that Scandinavian and American sailors were more accustomed to them and could handle them better than English crews.
Captain Barr considered that every sailing yacht making an ocean passage should have ample boat accommodation for all persons on board, and by means of dorys this could easily be effected.
The dory is an awkward-looking flat bottomed boat, and some of the schooners carry as many as a dozen of them. They are of the proportions of an English dinghy, and of different sizes, so that several stow one within the other. They are of light construction, and are easily lifted by a rope becket at bow and stern. The sternmost becket is shown hi the engraving, also the score for sculling the boat.
When men sit on the same thwart to row oars from different sides of a boat. Double-banked frigates were two deckers, with the upper deck ports disguised.
Double Block.-- A block with twin sheaves.
Double Dutch.-- - confused way of speaking. (See "Preventive Man.")
Double Gimbals.-- See "Gimbals."
Doubling Plank.-- To put one thickness of plank over the other.
Douse or Dowse.--
To lower away suddenly, to take in a sail suddenly. "Dowse the glim." to pint out a light.
Dove-tail Plates.-- Plates in form like a dove's tail.
A hard wood or metal pin used for connecting timber or the edges of plank.
Downhaul.-- A rope used for hauling sails down.
Down Helm.-- An order to put the helm to leeward and cause the vessel to luff.
Down Oars.--
The order given for the crew of a boat to let fall their oars after having them on end in the boat. See "Let Fall" and "Give Way."
Down Wind.--
Sailing in the direction of or with the wind - before the wind ; with tine wind astern.
Down Wind Down Sea.--
The sea will subside when the wind does ; or the sea will go down when the wind Is blowing the same direction as a tidal current, &c.
Drag.-- The increased draught of water aft compared with the draught forward.
Drag, To.-- To scrape the bottom; to search the bottom with grapnels.
Draught of Water.--
The depth of a vessel to the extreme underside of the keel measured frem the load water line.
A sail is said to draw when it is filled by the wind. To let draw is to ease up the weather sheet of a sail after it has been hauled to windward, arid trim the lee sheet aft.
Draw her to.--
In sailing large to bring a vessel closer to wind.
To dress ship is to hoist flags from deck to truck; or from bowsprit end to truck and taffrail. Sometimes referred to as dressed "rainbow fashion."
To dress copper is to lay or smooth down wrinkles by going over it with a flat piece of hard wood and a hammer.
Drift.-- To float about with the tide or current.
Drift.-- The distance between two blocks of a tackle ; or the two parts of one thing.
In a calm in the case of being out of sight of land. or in a dense fog. but not out of soundings, if it is desired to know the direction of the current or tide, (drop a pig of ballast or lead line overboard with enough line out to just reach the bottom. Then watch the direction in which it drags.
Drive.-- To move to leeward by the force of the wind or drive without control.
Dry rot.-- The decay timber is subject to often through imperfect ventilation.
Light canvas of which boat sails and balloon sails are made. To duck is to dive under water
A sailor's white suit of duck. "They are all black ducks," an expression of derision used by yacht hands on the East coast towards their mates if they sit err deck with their heads up" when racing, instead of lying flat on the weather rail in the orthodox fashion.
A sailor's facetious way of pronouncing dough, hence plum duff for plum pudding. Duff is sometimes aplied to "soft tack ' or fresh bread as distinct from biscuits.
Dumb Cleat.-- A thumb cleat.
A nail used in fastening plank to the timbers, as distinguished from a through-bolt.
Dungaree or Dongaree.--
A blue linen or cotton. cloth in use in India now much used for for rough. or working suits given to yacht sailors.
Loose material such as cork. bamboo, shavings, ferns, coir &c., used to jam in between a heavy cargo such as casks, iron, &c.
Dynamometer.-- An instrument to measure forces.


Ropes used to fasten the corners of the heads of sails to the yards, by the cringles. The upper corners of sails are frequently termed earings. (See "Reef Earings.")
Ears of a Bolt.--
The lugs or upper projections of a bolt with a score in it, into which another part is fitted and held by a through pin so as to form a joint like that of a gooseneck.
Ease Away.--
The order to slacken a rope, &c.; to ease off a sheet, to ease up a sheet, are synonymous terms, and mean to slacken. (See "Check.")
Ease the Helm.--
The order given when sailing against a head sea to ease the weather helm, and by luffing meet the sea bow on, and at the same time deaden the ship's way so that the sea and ship meet less violently. Generally to put the helm amidship, or more amidship after it has been put to port or starboard.
Eating a Vessel out of the Wind.--
When two vessels are sailing in company, and if one soaks or settles out to windward of the other she is said to eat her out of the wind. In reality, to make less leeway.
Eating to Windward.--
A vessel is said to eat to windward when she, apparently, soaks out to windward of her wake.
Ebb.-- The receding of the tide.
Eddy.-- Water or currents of air apparently moving in circles.
Edge Away.-- To gradually keep a vessel more off a wind after sailing close hauled.
Edge Down on a Vessel.--
To bear away towards a vessel to leeward, so as to approach her in an oblique direction.
End for End.-- To shift a spar, rope, &c., by reversing the direction of the ends.
End On.--
Said of vessel when she has an object bearing in a line with the keel, directly ahead of the how. On approaching a mark or buoy it is said to be end on if it is directly ahead of the vessel, the bowsprit will then point to the object, hence it is sometimes said that an object is "right on for the bowsprit end."
A flag flown as a distinguishing mark of nationality. The red ensign, with "Union Jack" in the upper corner of the hoist, is the English national flag, and flown by merchantmen by law ; but the ensign of the Royal Navy is white with red St. George's cross in it besides the Jack in the corner: this is called "St. George's ensign." Prior to 1856 the red (highest in rank), white, and blue ensigns were used in the Royal Navy, and there were Admirals of the Red, Admirals of the White, and Admirals of the Blue; and there were Vice and Rear Admirals of the red, white, and blue. A fleet was divided into red, white, and blue divisions, according to the rank of the Admirals who commanded. In 1855 the red ensign was allotted to the British Mercantile Marine, the blue ensign to the Royal Naval Reserve, and the white ensign to the Royal Navy. However, the white and blue ensigns had always been reserved for the exclusive use of H.M.'s navy, and other vessels could not use either without an Admiralty warrant.
In the Royal Navy it was etiquette, when an Admiral was on board his ship, to fly the white ensign from the main truck, Vice-Admiral from the fore truck, and Rear-Admiral mizen truck. Admirals now fly St. George's Jack (which see) from the main, fore. or mizen, according to rank. A Union Jack is carried at the stem head or bowsprit end (all ships of the Royal Navy now so carry a Jack). When a council of war is being held on board a flagship, the white ensign is displayed in the main, fore, or mizen shrouds, according to the rank of the Admiral. If there is to be an execution after a court martial, the white ensign is hoisted on the main, fore, or mizen yard arm. Ships of the Royal Navy at the approach of Royalty, or whilst saluting, "dress" ship, by hoisting St. George's ensigns at the fore, main, and mizen trucks.
By the Merchant Shipping (Colours) Act, 1889, it is enjoined that "a ship belonging to any subject of Her Majesty shall, on a signal being made to her by one of Her Majesty's ships, and on entering or leaving any foreign port, and, if of 50 tons gross tonnage or upwards, shall also, on entering or leaving any British port, hoist the proper national colours, or, in default, incur a penalty not exceeding 100£." The term "proper national colours "for all ships is defined as the red ensign, "except in the case of Her Majesty's ships or boats, or in the case of any other ship or boat for the time being allowed to wear any other national colours in pursuance of a warrant from Her Majesty or from the Admiralty." Thus, if a yacht is allowed to fly the blue or white ensign as a proper national colour, her owner may incur a penalty every time he enters or leaves a British port without flying such blue or white ensign.
If an ensign other than the red be flown by any vessel without a warrant from the Admiralty, a penalty of 500£. may be inflicted, and any Custom House or Consular officer or officer in the Royal Navy on full pay may hoard the vessel and seize the flag. Although the red ensign has been assigned to the mercantile marine, no device can be put in it other than the Jack without the permission of the Admiralty.
The jurisdiction of the Admiralty only extends to flags flown afloat, end any ensign or flag can be hoisted on flagstaffs on shore.
When a warrant is granted to a club to fly the white, blue, or the red ensign with a device, this warrant does not of itself entitle a member of the club to fly either ensign on board his yacht; before he can legally do so he must also obtain a warrant from the Admiralty through the club secretary. A warrant must be obtained for each club be belongs to, if he desires to fly the flags of the clubs. When the yacht is disposed of, the warrants must be returned through the club secretary to the Admiralty, and if the owner obtains a new yacht he must get fresh warrants.
Prior to 1858 the Royal Western Yacht Club of Ireland flew the white ensign with a wreath of shamrock in it. In 1847, the privilege of flying the white ensign was accorded to the Royal St. George's Yacht Club, Kingstown, but was afterwards rescinded upon a representation by the Royal Yacht Squadron that that club by its warrant of 1829 (prior to 1829, the R.Y.S. flew the red ensign)--had the exclusive privilege of flying the white ensign. In 1853 an application was made in Parliament to know if the R.Y.S. had that exclusive privilege. The first Lord of the Admiralty said it had not, inasmuch as the privilege had also been extended to the Royal Western of Ireland in 1832, and was still enjoyed by that club. (But it does not appear that the Royal Western ever applied for a separate warrant for a yacht to fly the white ensign.) In 1858 the Royal St. George's Yacht Club (also the Holyhead) again applied for permission to fly the white ensign; the permission was not granted, and the Admiralty informed the Royal Western that they were no longer to use it; on making search at the Admiralty, it was found that in 1842 a decision was come to that no warrant should be issued to fly the white ensign to any club besides the Royal Yacht Squadron; and the clubs affected by the decision were informed of it accordingly, but the Royal Western of Ireland was not interfered with, because up to that time no application for separate warrants from the club for yachts to fly the ensign had been received; and further, in 1853, the Royal Western obtained permission to continue to use the ensign.
The decision made in 1842 was at the instance of Lord Yarborough (commodore of the R.Y.S.). He then set no special value on the white ensign except that he wished it to be confined to the yachts of the R.Y.S. to distinguish them from the yachts of other clubs.
Accordingly copies of the Admiralty minute were sent to the clubs using the white ensign (Royal Thames, Royal Southern, Royal Western of England, Royal Eastern, Holyhead, Wharncliffe, and Gibraltar), but, oddly enough, for the reason already stated, the Royal Western of Ireland, by an oversight, was omitted, and that club continued to use the ensign until the mistake was recognised by the Admiralty in 1857-8.
At that date the white ensign was adopted as the sole flag of the Royal Navy, and naturally the Admiralty were obliged to be more particular in granting warrants for flying it than they were in 1842; however, the Royal Yacht Squadron, which had always been under the special patronage of the Royal family, was considered worthy of the privilege. The privilege to fly it is cherished and coveted, and other distinguished yachting nations like Austria-Hungary, Italy, Spain, Denmark, Portugal, Sweden, Norway, and France have each given one yacht club the privilege of flying the naval flag of the country. A notable exception is Germany, although the Emperor is Commodore of the German Imperial Yacht Club. In America, as in France, the naval colours are the same as those of the mercantile marine, and a special ensign has been accorded to yacht clubs -- all using the same and enjoying the same privileges. In Russia this has also been done, the yacht club ensign being something like our white, but with blue instead of red cross.
Our Admiralty refuse to allow any imitation ensigns, and this is quite right. Some years ago the Royal Cork Yacht Club applied for permission to use a green ensign, on the plea that the red, white, and blue were already appropriated by other clubs. The Admiralty replied they might (at that time) choose which of the three national ensigns they pleased, but the creation of a new colour could not be sanctioned. (See "Admiralty Warrants," "Royal and Recognised Clubs," "Burgee," "Dipping the Ensign," &c.)
Ensign for Hired Transports.--
The blue ensign with Admiralty anchor (yellow) in the fly.
Ensign, Hoisting of.--
Ensigns and burgees are hoisted every morning at eight o'clock (9 AM from September 30 to March 31), and hauled down at sunset. It is a slovenly habit to hoist and haul down colours at irregular hours. At sea it is only usual to hoist colours when passing another vessel.
Ensign of Naval Reserve.-- The blue ensign.
Ensign of the Colonies.-- The blue ensign with arms or badge of colony in it.
Ensign of the Customs.-- -The blue ensign with crown in fly.
The fore part of a vessel, the bow. A good entrance into the water means a long well-formed bow.
Entrance Money.--
The money demanded by clubs from yacht owners, who enter their vessels for match sailing at regattas.
Entry.-- The record that a yacht is engaged for a particular match.
The complete outfit of a vessel including everything used in her handling, working, and accommodation. The inventory comprises the equipment.
A kind of yacht of the twelfth century. According to Diez, "Dictionary of the Romance Languages," the word is old French, esneque or esneche, "a sharp prowed ship."
See "Saluting," "Ensign," "Boats," "Burgee," "Commodore," "Admiralty Warrants," &c.
Even Keel.--
Said of a vessel when she is not heeled either to port or starboard, also when her keel is horizontal, that is when she is so trimmed that her draught forward is the same as aft.
Every Stitch of Canvas Set.-- When all available canvas that will draw is set.
Extreme Breadth.--
The greatest breadth of a vessel from the outside of the plank on one side to the outside of the plank on the other side, wales and doubling planks being included and measured in the breadth.
Eye Bolt.-- See "Bolts."
Eyelet Holes.--
Small holes worked in sails for lacings, &c., to be rove through.
Eyes of Her.--
The extreme fore end of the ship near the hawse pipes, which are the "eyes of her."
Eyes of the Rigging.--
The loops spliced into the ends of shrouds to go over the mast, and for the rigging screws.
Eye Splice.-- The end of a rope turned in so as to form an eye.





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© 2000 Craig O'Donnell
May not be reproduced without my permission.
Go scan your own damn dictionary.

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