Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and Architecture

(11th and final edition, 1913)


Una Boat.--
This is a centre-board boat with one sail introduced from America, where they are known as "cat boats." The mast is stepped close to the stem (sometimes with a rake aft),and the sail is laced to a boom and gaff. The name Una was given them because the first boat introduced at Cowes, from America, was so named. These boats vary from twice to three times their beam in length, and are very shallow. If handled with care, they are sate enough, very fast, and in smooth water very weatherly and handy. In squalls they should always be luffed up in good time, or they might be driven under. (See Fig. 110.)
FIG 110
The term "Una rig is now commonly used in England to denote a one-sail boat. Undoubtedly the word "Una" refers to one sail, and not to the type of boat; hence we hear of all sorts of boats being "Una rigged" and in America the corresponding rig (termed "cat rig") is applied to both deep-bodied and shallow craft. Whether or not any single sail could ho properly classed under the term Una can only be decided arbitrarily. The one sail boat brought over here in 1853 and named "Una" had a gaff sail, and no other sail. Cowes Unas wore famous in their day, but since the advent of small "Raters" none have been built.


Unbend.-- To cast loose a sail from its gaff, yard, &c. The opposite of bend.
Under Bowing the Sea.--
When a vessel is close hauled sailing in a cross sea, and gets the worst of it on the lee bow.
Under Canvas.-- Proceeding by means of sail. With sail set.
Under Deck.-- Below.
Under Hatches.-- Below deck.
To follow up a rope, chain hawser, or cable, by hauling it in from a boat which moves in the direction that the cable, &c. is laid out.
Under Sail.-- See "Under Canvas."
Under the Lee.--
Sheltered from the wind by the sails of another vessel. Under the lee of the land, sheltered from the full force of the wind by the land.
Moving through the water under the influence of the wind, steam, or oars. Sometimes wrongly written under-weigh. It is said a vessel may be under-weigh when she is getting her anchor; but even then it would be the anchor, and not the vessel, that would be under-weigh.
In Admiral Smyth's "Sailor's Word Book," (edition revised by Admiral Sir E. Belcher, 1867), is the following :-
"UNDERWAY.-- A ship beginning to move under canvas after her anchor is started; some have written this underweigh, but improperly. A ship is underweigh when she has weighed her anchor; she may be with or without canvas, or hove to. As soon as she gathers way she is underway. This is a moot point with old seamen."
The obvious objections to using underweigh in this limited sense is that a man might find himself saying. "We got underweigh at noon, but were not underway until two hours later." The fact is, underweigh is never written by seamen except through carelessness; but the odd thing is that greenhorns take to the word more kindly than they do to underway, probably because they have enough knowledge to know that to get underway the anchor must be weighed. The best naval writers never describe the operation of heaving in up the anchor as getting underweigh but always write "she weighed," or she weighed anchor," or "we weighed," &c. To get underway" is by them used in the sense of making preparation to get way on, and when the anchor is aweigh the ship may have way on or not. Dana (who may be taken as an unimpeachable authority) does not admit the word underweigh at all in his Seaman's Manual (revised edition by the Registrar-General of British Shipping) but in the instructions for making sail &c. underway is always used thus "Getting underway from a single anchor," "getting underway, riding head to wind" &c. So also underway is the term used in the Merchant Shipping Act.
In William Falconer's Marine Dictionary (the edition published 1779) underweigh is not to be found, but we come upon the following sections :
"UNDERWAY.-- If it be in a tideway and with a leading wind, so that the ship can stem the tide, let it be a rule when the tide serves to get underway and sail against the flood, which gives time to clear a ship of her moorings, and affords a more powerful effect to the helm to clear of other ships, &c.
"WAY.-- The course or progress a ship makes in the water under sail. Thus, when she begins her motion she is said to be underway, &c."
"RIDING AT ANCHOR.-- When a fleet of many ships is moored in a port or road care must be taken to preserve a considerable distance between the vessels, not only for the purpose of keeping them clear of each other, but to prevent them from running foul when getting underway."
"WEIGH.-- To heave up the anchor of a ship in order to prepare her for sailing."
William Falconer, besides being a distinguished author, was a thorough seaman, and after long service in HM's Navy, was lost in the wreck of the Aurora, 1769, aged 39.
Hutchinson (master mariner), in his "Practical Seamanship," published in 1795, uses the term "underway," and underweigh is not to be found in his book. B.H. Gower, in his "Seamanship," published 1808, also uses underway. Admiral Sir George Nares, in his "Seamanship" (6th edition, published 1882), always uses underway, and so does Admiral De Horsey in his writings.
A person who attaches his name to a policy of insurance by the side of the amount he will share of the risk. The under part of some policies may have two or three hundred names attached, as the principle of underwriting is to have very little at stake on any one ship. To become an underwriter at Lloyd's a deposit of 5000£ cash is required, for which interest is paid. The entrance fee is 100£, and the subscription is 12£ 12s. per year, together with 5£. 5s. for a seat in the rooms.
The national flag denoting the union of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Jack is a small flag -- a diminutive of the Union only flown from the jack staff on bowsprit end or fore part of a ship. In the merchant service it must have a white border. When flown from the mast with a white border it is the signal for a pilot, and is called the Pilot Jack. To no other union flag is the term Jack applied. The "Union" is flown on forts, Government works, &c. The flag of England is the St. George's cross (+) red on a white ground. The national flag of Scotland is St. Andrew's, a white cross (x) or saltire on a blue ground, and on the union with England these two were combined. The Scottish flag remained unchanged; the English cross was merely placed over it, the white ground of the English flag giving place to the blue ground of that of Scotland. This was the first Union flag.
On the union with Ireland the Irish saltire (St. Patrick's cross (x), red on white) was added, being placed side by side with that of Scotland; but for a requirement of heraldry, to be presently noticed, the flag would consist of a blue ground with one band of white representing the Scottish cross, and one of red of the same breadth beside it, representing the first cross, with a red cross over both-nothing more. But it is a law of heraldry that colour cannot be placed next colour, nor metal next metal, and so, to meet this, the red Irish cross has a narrow hem or border of silver (white) to separate it from the blue ground of the flag, and for the same purpose the red cross of St. George has, or rather should have, a similar narrow border of white of the same breadth as the border of St. Patrick's cross. In arranging the two saltires they are "counterchanged," that is, Scotland has precedence in the first and third quarters by its white cross being placed above the Irish one, while in the second and fourth quarters the precedence is ceded to Ireland by the red cross being placed over the white.
The words of the heraldic blazon contained in the Order of the King in Council of Nov. 5, 1800, and announced to the nation by the Proclamation of Jan. 1, 1801, prescribes the form in which the national flag is to be constructed in these words: "The Union flag shall be azure, the crosses saltires of Saint Andrew and Saint Patrick, quarterly per saltire, counterchanged, argent and gules; the latter fimbriated of the second, surmounted by the cross of St. George of the third, fimbriated as the saltire." To these distinct words of the verbal blazon in the Proclamation all questions as to the form and proportions of the flag must be referred.
The Order in Council refers to a "draft" or drawing of the flag, and of this drawing, the one which accompanies the Admiralty Memorandum professes to be a copy, both the drawing and the Admiralty measurement obviously disconform to the blazon proscribed in the Proclamation. That blazon expressly directs that the cross of St. George "shall be fimbriated as the saltire" that is, it must have a border the same as that of the Irish saltire; but, so far is this from being the case, that, while in the drawing the hem or border of the cross of Ireland is less than one-sixtieth the width of the flag (which is quite as broad as it should be), the measurement given in the Admiralty Memorandum for the breadth of the border of the St. George's cross is one-fifteenth, and it is nearly the same in the drawing said to be a copy of that in the Council Records. This palpable error has been followed in almost all our flags. It will be seen in the diagram made from the Admiralty regulations given further on, but a border so broad is not a fimbriation at all. It really represents two crosses -- a white one with a red one over.
Mr. Laughton, the accomplished lecturer on naval history at the Royal Naval College, thus speaks of it: "A fimbriation," he says, "is a narrow border to separate colour from colour. It should be as narrow as possible to mark the contrast; but the white border of our St. George's cross is not, strictly speaking, a fimbriation at all. It is a white cross of one-third the width of the flag surmounted of a red cross."
There is another error equally calling for correction, and for which the Admiralty Memorandum is responsible. When two saltires are directed to be represented on the sanse shield or flag, they must be of the same breadth. The crosses of Scotland and Ireland therefore, which on our flag are side by side, ought to be of precisely the same breadth. In the official drawing of 1800 they look nearly the same, and they were perhaps intended to be so ; but the Admiralty Memorandum, disregarding the drawing and the verbal blazon alike, directs that the Scottish saltire shall be one-tenth the breadth of the flag, and that the Irish
SCALE 1/4in=1FT.
Blue, light shade (horizontal lines); red, dark shade (vertical lines).
FIG 111.


saltire shall be only one-fifteenth. If the diagram of the Admiralty were altered, so as to make the Irish saltire as broad as that of Scotland; if the border of the Irish cross were made narrower; and if the border of the St. George's cross were reduced so as to make it of the same breadth as that of the Irish cross, it would more correctly show what the flag ought to be according to the heraldic blazon. Flags in the Royal Navy are measured by the number of breadths they contain in their widths, a breadth being equal to 9in. An eight breadth Jack will therefore be 6ft. wide and 12ft. long, being in length double its width.
(See Fig. 111.)


St. George's Cross. Red cross to be one fifth the width of flag, borders to be one fifteenth the width of flag, or one-third the width of red cross.
St. Andrew's Cross to be one fifteenth the width of the flag, or one-fifth the width of St. George's Cross, or equal to the border of St. George's Cross.
St. Patrick's Cross. Narrow white to be one-thirtieth the width of the flag, or one sixth the width of St. George's Cross, or one half of St. Andrew's Cross. Broad white to be one-tenth of the width of the flag, or one half of the red of St. George's Cross, or equal to red of St. Andrew's Cross and narrow white together.


Union Down.-- An ensign with the jack downwards, hoisted as a signal of distress.
With anchors a-weigh. A vessel is also said to be "unmoored" when she is riding to a single anchor, as to be moored two anchors must be down, or she must be fast to a permanent mooring.
Unreeve.-- To haul out a rope from a hole, &c.
Unrig.-- To dismantle a ship or any part of her, as to unrig a topmast or bowsprit.
Unship.-- To remove a thing from its lodgment.
Up and Down.--
Vertically. The wind is sometimes said to be up and down the mast, when there is none at all, like Paddy's hurricane.
Upper Mast, Upper Stick.-- A topmast, a topgallant mast, &c.
Upper Strake.--
The top strake running round a vessel at the deck edge under the covering board, usually stouter than the general planking, and almost always of bard wood to better bold fastenings.
Usages of the Sea.-- Customs of the sea in relation to commercial pursuits, which are held in law to be binding.


Van.-- The advanced part of a fleet.
Vane.-- See "Dog Vane."
A rope used to keep a gaff from sagging to leeward. On a schooner's foresail a block is lashed to the mainmast head, through which the vang is rove and made fast to the fore gaff end; the fall of the rope leads to the deck. In square-rigged ships vangs are generally used on the spanker gaff. Sprit sail barges also use vangs.
Variation of the Compass.--
The departure the compass needle shows from true North at certain parts of the globe. The difference between magnetic and true North usually expressed in degrees on charts. The variation widely differs, thus : in the English Channel it is about 230, at New York only 5û. The deviation of the compass is doe to local attraction. A chart called a 'Variation Chart," shows by curved lines the changing variations of the compass needle for different parts of the globe. Variation must not be confused with the deviation due to local attraction in iron and composite ships.
Black Japan: 1oz. lamp black, 2oz. bitumen, 1/2oz. acetate lead, 1/2oz. Turkey umber, 1/2oz. Venice turpentine, 12oz. boiled oil. Dissolve the oil in turpentine; powder the other ingredients, and stir in gradually. Simmer on slow fire ten minutes.
Copal Varnish: Copal 30oz., drying linseed oil 18oz., spirits of turpentine 50oz. Briskly fuse the copal; heat the oil to close on boiling point, and pour it hot on the copal; mix thoroughly; allow the mixture to cool a little and add the turpentine, mix 'thoroughly. When cool strain for use. Only first class varnish should be used.
A Quick-drying Varnish: 7lb. copal (fused), hot linseed 1/2 gall., hot turpentine 1.5 gall. Carefully stir and boil together.
Oak Varnish: 7lb. pale resin dissolved in 2gall. oil of turpentine.
Varnish for Metals: Powder 1lb. of copal and dissolve in 2lb. of strongest alcohol. A very quick-drying varnish.
Varnish for Iron: Mastic (clear grains) 10lb., camphor 5lb., sandarach 15lb. elemi 5lb. Dissolve in sufficient alcohol.
Black Varnish or Polish for Iron: Resin 4oz., lamp black 2oz., beeswax 3oz., shellac 2oz., linseed oil 1qt. Boil together one hour, and then stir in 1/2pt. turpentine.
Tar Varnish for Iron: Coal tar 1pt., lamp black 1oz., heel ball 1/2oz., spirits turpentine 1/4pt., beeswax 1oz. Dissolve the heel ball and beeswax in the turpentine, add the lamp black and tar, warm and mix it thoroughly. This mixture should be applied hot.
Tar Varnish for Wood or Iron : 1 gallon coal tar, 2oz. oil of vitriol; mix thoroughly, and add 1/2pt. of turpentine; mix, and apply immediately. This dries quickly, and only quantities sufficient for use should be made.
Varnishing a Bright Boat.--
Rub down the wood thoroughly and put on four coats of copal varnish. If size is used for priming, the varnish will peel off. To clean off varnish : take a mixture of soda (2lb.), soap (1lb.), boiled together, it will remove varnish from spars, &c. It should be applied hot. (See also "Caustic Soda.")
To pay out chain. Veer is also used in the sense of wearing or gybing. The wind is said to veer when it changes in direction with the sun; to back when it changes against the sun, the wind is said to veer when it draws more aft. To haul when it comes more ahead.
Veer and Haul.--
To slacken up a rope, and then haul on it suddenly, in order that those who are hauling on it may acquire a momentum. Pulling by jerks.
Veer out the Cable.-- The order to pay out or slack away cable.
Veering a Buoy in a Vessel's Wake.--
Throwing overboard a buoy in the wake of a ship when a man has fallen overboard, in the hope that he may get to it, and pick it up.
Vertical.-- At right angles to the horizon, or perpendicular to the horizon.
Vessel.-- A name for all kinds of craft, from a canoe to a three-decker.
Victual.-- To supply with provisions for a voyage, &c.
Voyage.-- The passage of a vessel by sea. A short voyage is called a trip or a cast.

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