Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and Architecture

(11th and final edition, 1913)

Slack - Swivel.

Not taut. To slack up a rope or fall of a tackle is to ease it.
Slack Helm.-- When a vessel carries very little, if any, weather helm.
Slack in Stays.-- Slow in coming head to wind, and still slower in paying off.
Slack Tide.--
The tide between the two streams when it runs neither one way nor the other. There are high-water slack and low-water slack.
Slant of Wind.-- A favouring wind. A wind that frees a vessel when close-hauled.
Sleep, or All Asleep.-- When the sails are full and do not flap or shiver.
Sliding Gunter.--
A gentleman under the signature of "Far West" says he has used a form of sliding gunter as shown by Fig. 97.
FIG 97.
It is fitted as shown, the sail goes up and down as a cutter's sail, but with one halyard. On letting go the halyard, the sail falls into the boat in a moment; it is made up on the boom, and covered in the usual way. If the traveller is made as shown it never jams, running up and down easily. The traveller does not come into play under full sail, but when reefed down the yard is sent up to its proper place, and the downhaul, which is spliced to the traveller, hauled taut; this holds the yard to the mast, setting the sail well. The masthead, or pole, should be as long as the distance between the tack and the upper reef cringle ; the sail may be further reefed by lashing the halyard a foot or more above where it is fast to the yard.
Sliding Keel.--
An old term for a keel which was lifted at the ends in contradistinction a pivoted board. (See the chapter on" Centreboards.")
Slings.-- Ropes or strops used to support or sling yards, &c.
Slip.-- To let go, as to slip the cable.
A fore-and-aft rigged vessel something like a cutter, but usually has a standing bowsprit. Small sloops have only one head sail set on a stay. (See the "Trial.")
Slot.-- An aperture generally for a pin or bolt to travel in.
Smack.-- A small trading vessel usually cutter rigged. A fishing cutter.
Small Helm.-- Said of a vessel when she carries weather helm.
Small Stuff.--
A term applied in the dockyards to denote planking of 4in. thickness and under.
FIG 98.
Snatch Block.--
A block with an opening in the shell so that a rope can be put over the sheave without reeving it. (See Fig. 98.)
Sneak Box.-- A shallow and beamy boat in use on Barnegat Bay, U.S.A.
A double-eyed strop used to support the heel of a sprit on the mast. (See "Sprit Sail.")
A two-masted vessel with a stay, termed a horse, from the mainmast head to the deck on which a trysail was set. Frequently a spar was fitted instead of the stay.
To bring a vessel up suddenly when she has way on and only a short range of cable to veer out. Sometimes necessary if the vessel must be stopped at all costs, but a practice likely to break the fluke of an anchor if it is a good and quick holder.
Comfortably canvassed to suit the weather. Anything made neat, or stowed compactly.
So !-An order to cease, often given instead of "belay" when men are hauling on a rope.
Soldiers' Wind.--
A wind so that a vessel can lie her course all through to her destination without tacking or any display of seamanship.
Sooji Mooji.--
A composition of caustic soda and quicklime (see "Caustic Soda") for cleaning off old paint, varnish, &c.
Sound.-- Not decayed or rotten; free of shakes, splits, crushings, &c.
Sounding.-- See "Lead."
Soundings.-- To be near enough to land for the deep sea lead to find a bottom.
Spales or Spauls.--
Cross shores used to keep the frame of a vessel in position whilst building.
A rope made fast by both ends to a spar or stay, usually for the purpose of booking a tackle to. Very long spans are now commonly fitted to gaffs to hook the peak halyards to.
Spanish Burton.--
A purchase composed of three single blocks. A double Spanish Burton consists of one double and two single blocks.
Spanish Reef.--
A knot tied in the head of a jib. headed sail to shorten the hoist or reduce the area of the sail.
The fore-and-aft sail set with boom and gaff on the mizen of a square-rigged ship; termed also the driver.
Span Shackle.--
A bolt with a triangular shackle. The gammon iron that encircles the bowsprit at the stem. When it is directly over the stem the forestay is shackled to it.
Spars.-- The masts, booms, gaffs, yards, bowsprit, &c. of a vessel.
Spars, Mensuration of.--
Cubical contents of a spar can thus be found. Find the area of each end (see "Area of Circles"); add the areas of the circles together and halve the sum. Multiply the half by the length of the spar. If the spar tapers towards each end, the area of each end and the middle area should be taken, added together, and divided by 3. And the plan is as follows: take the girth (see circumference "Areas of Circles ") of the spar at each end and halve it. Find the square of the half, and multiply it by the length of the spar. If the spar tapers at both ends, find the girths at three places, halve and divide by 3; find the square of the quotient, and multiply it by the length of the spar. The weight of spars can be found by multiplying their solid contents by the weight in pounds per cubic foot of the wood the spar is made of. Thus a cubic foot of red pine will weigh from 32 to 40lb., and a cubic foot of oak from 53 to 60lb. (See "Weight and Bulk of Substances.")
Spectacle Strop.-- A short strop with an eye at each end.
Speed of Yachts.--
The speed of yachts and ships under sail is a subject of great interest to yachtsmen. Speaking generally, modern yachts attain far greater speed than old vessels in light winds, and the less the wind the greater the difference in favour of modern types. The American schooner Westward in 1910 displayed extraordinary speed in light airs (and also in fresh winds). Such cutters as Shamrock, 23 metres, 75 ft. L.W.L., attain marvellous speed with hardly any wind at all when older yachts would scarcely be able to move.
In strong breezes when maximum speed is attained, the difference in the speed of yachts is only slightly in favour of modern vessels. No doubt very exaggerated opinions prevail as to the speed a yacht is capable of. Very frequently there is a mistake made about the distance sailed in a certain time; no allowance has been made for tide, or the speed has been inaccurately judged. So far as our experience goes, the following table gives the maximum speed ballasted sailing yachts of certain length and tonnage generally attain;
These observed speeds correspond with the theory that speed varies as the square roots of the length on load waterline in vessels of similar form and proportions. Of course, there have been isolated instances when these speeds have been exceeded, and especially by unballasted small boats.
A modern vessel, it is important to remember, will attain a speed nearly approaching her maximum speed when sailing quite close hauled. Sailing at the same angle to the wind an old-fashioned vessel could make but slow headway. When off the wind, in a fresh breeze old and new types approach equality.
There has been no better instance of the equality in speed of old and new vessels on a broad reach (when sailing at high speed) than that afforded by the races sailed across Channel on July 18th, 1903. After rounding the mark-boat off Boulogne, the yachts sailed back to Dover Wick in a steady jackyard topsail breeze a little abaft of the beam. The matches included yachts of every type, but the old boats were all thoroughly well preserved, though possibly in some instances a little undercanvased. Those which may be regarded as good reaching boats came home in the order of their length on load waterline, irrespective of age and type. The weight of the wind was such that Fiona was probably travelling her fastest. The speeds of Cicely, Irex, and Bona, no doubt, would have considerably increased had there been rather more wind, whilst probably Palmosa, although she had only a jibheader aloft, would not have done much better under different conditions.
The time of sailing the distance, which is approximately twenty-five miles, was as follows :-


Length Time.
Yacht. L.W.L. in ft. H. M. S.
it is interesting to notice how nearly the time occupied in seconds by the yachts varied in inverse ratio to the square root of the length of load waterline in feet
Yacht L.W. L. Knots.
Cicely 9)52 ... 8172 ... 1151
Irex 9l8) ... 5)40 ... 10 79
Bona 8 8)3 ... s))7 ... 10.92
Fiona 8)44 ... 8710 ... 1033
Namara 8387 ... 879) ... 1023
Moonbeam 7.748 ... 910) ... 9-55
Palmosa... 7748 ... 987) ... 9.30
Owing to the great difference in the age, and consequently in type, it would be unfair to compare them according to Y.R.A. linear rating, a form of measurement which naturally penalises some more severely than others, but supposing their rating for the purposes of this race to have accorded with their L.W.L. length, it is really remarkable how very close the yachts would have come together under the existing scale of time allowance of the Y.R.A. Cicely, at 92ft. would have allowed Palmosa, at 54ft., 1580sec., according to the Y.R.A. time scale, whilst the actual difference between them in the race was 1503sec. These circumstances lead us to conclude that, for practical purposes, there is as much truth today in the adage that the speed of yachts varies according to the square root of the length as there was at a time the oldest of these competitors was launched, and when yachtsmen were less inclined to believe mathematical calculations than they are now. When we consider, too, the long period over which the careers of the competing vessels have extended, for Fiona was built in 1865 and Moonbeam in 1903, the races from Dover to Boulogne and back, on July 18th, 1903, must be regarded as amongst the most interesting contests recorded in yachting history.
There are some apparently well-authenticated reports that yachts of great length on the load-line have reached a speed of 16 knots. The fastest speed ever attained by a sailing yacht (which can be regarded as actually authentic) was reached by the schooner Rainbow in 1898. This yacht was designed by Mr. G.L. Watson, and built on the Clyde for the late Mr. C.L. Orr-Ewing. She was 115ft. long, L.W.L., and carried 13,460 sq. ft. of canvas. In the race from Dover to Heligoland for the German Emperor's Cup in 1898 she sailed from the Borkam Lightship to Heligoland mark boat, a distance of 60 miles, in four hours, and twice during that time the log registered 16.5 knots. On August 3rd, 1898, at Cowes, she sailed the Queen's course, 47 miles, at an average speed of 12.3 knots.
The yawl Sybarita on June 11th, 1901, racing against the cutter Kariad in a match from Rothesay round the Ailsa Crag and back, which sailed in nearly a gale of wind and very heavy sea, averaged 12.3 knots.
On August 6th, 1902, the German Emperor's schooner Meteor III, with a water line of 120ft., sailed the Queen's course at Cowes in 3hrs. 50min. 27sec., just two minutes less time than Rainbow occupied on August 3rd, 1898; Rainbow, however, had to make several tacks, and Meteor reached all the way. Meteor's time of 1902 was the fastest ever recorded over the Queen's course at that date; but on August 7th, 1908, the schooner Cicely sailed the Queen's course in 3hrs. 43min. 27sec., thus beating the old records of Rainbow and Meteor III.
On August 8th, 1908, a German built vessel -- Germania (L.W.L. about 107ft.) -- sailed the old Queen's course at Cowes (Bullock and Lymington) in 3hrs. 35min. 11sec., the distance, 47 miles, being covered at an average speed of 13.1 knots. This is now the fastest race ever sailed at Cowes.
The American yacht Sappho (121ft. L.W.L.) is alleged to have made 16 knots as long ago as 1869; and as doubts have at various times been thrown upon the statement, an extract from her log book in crossing the Atlantic in 1869 is given further on. The Sappho left Sandy Hook Lightship 7 a.m. July 28, and arrived Queenstown Harbour 9 p.m. Aug. 9, Queenstown time, making the run in 12 days 9 hours 36 min. (two hours less to the Old Head of Kinsale).
The marvellous Transatlantic passage of the schooner Atlantic (135ft. L.W.L.), Sandy Hook to the Scilly Islands in 11 days 16hrs. 22min. is given on page 750. This was done in 1905 after a lapse of 36 years.
In the case of the Sappho it will be seen that the strong wind was on the quarter the whole way, and as the sea was exceptionally smooth, more favourable conditions for attaining high speed could not have been had. As a rule, with a strong wind, there is a great deal of sea, and this, of course, is an unfavourable condition for the attainment of high speeds, and it must be remembered that the schooner Atlantic was 14ft. longer on the L.W.L. than the Sappho.
In the Atlantic race of 1886, between the American yachts Dauntless and Coronet, the Dauntless logged 328 miles in 24 hours, whilst the biggest run of the Coronet was 291 miles.
It is equally well authenticated that the American yacht Meteor (which was lost in the Mediterranean), in a passage from Cowes to Lisbon in 1869, logged 319 miles in 24 hours, with a strong, quarterly, double-reef wind. During some portion of the 24 hours the Meteor logged 16 knots.
The Cambria, in the Atlantic yacht race 1870 only attained a maximum speed of 11.5 knots, but there was a heavy quarter sea whenever she had a strong fair wind. In the year 1871 the late Mr. Dixon Kemp said that the greatest sustained speed that he had ever been witness to an a match was in a race between the Livonia (106ft. on the waterline) and Columbia (98ft.) in America. The Livonia did the distance between the S.W. Spit buoy and Sandy Hook Lightship, 8.75 nautical miles, in 40 minutes, or at the rate of 13 knots; and no doubt that some part of the time she was going 13.5 knots. The tide was not strong, and abeam.
The reader will observe that this speed has been exceeded by more modern vessels. In a match of the Royal Victoria Yacht Club, Ryde, on Aug. 12, 1885, the Irex (cutter, 83.5ft. on the waterline) in a strong reaching wind went round a course of 50 miles in four hours eight minutes. The tide was equally with and against her, so the average speed through the water was 12.1 knots.
We do not think this speed has been much exceeded by English yachts of the lengths given, but the late Mr. Thellusson stated that the Guinevere (121ft. L.W.L.) logged 14 knots. Mr. Heckstall Smith timed the schooner Germania (107ft L.W.L.) to sail 5 nautical miles, from the East Princessa Buoy to the Warner Lightship, in 20min.; making a slight curve to allow for water on the end of St. Helens Patch, she was then doing 15 knots. This was in a race on August 12th, 1912. Regarding, then, the figures given by the late Mr. Thellusson, and other yachtsmen of the old school, about the year 1870, and those of the present day, it may be concluded, in a general sense, that there has been a slight increase in the maximum speed of yachts.
When we consider that Irex was 7ft. shorter than Sybarita, no less than 33ft. shorter than Rainbow, and 37ft. shorter than Guinevere, Sappho, and 23ft. shorter than Germania her performance can only be regarded as marvellous.
The fastest day run of a sailing yacht in an ocean passage was made by the American yacht Atlantic on May 24th, 1905, in a race across the Atlantic Ocean for a Cup given by the German Emperor. This yacht was a three-masted fore-and-aft schooner, 185ft long over all, 135ft L.W.L., 29ft. 6in. beam, and 15ft draught, 532 tons, T.M. She ran 341 nautical miles in the day, thus averaging 14.2 knots (see her log below): the late Captain Charles Barr was at the helm. Her owner was Mr. Wilson Marshall.
It is recorded that the clipper ship Sovereign of the Seas in 1852 averaged 300 miles a day for eleven consecutive days, and 333 miles for four consecutive days. Her greatest distance any day, noon to noon, was 362 miles; but in 1853, on a voyage from Oaten to New York, she ran 396 miles on March 16, and on the 18th 411.
The ship Red Jacket, New York to England, January, 1853, logged 417 miles, and in the Southern Ocean, July, 1853, she made the following remarkable record:
Date. Miles. Date Miles. Date Miles.
July 3 312 July 7 299 July 11 24)
4 300 ,, 5...... 380 ,, 32 700
288 ,, 9 7)7
G 400 I ,, 10 334 Total... 318i
On July 8 the latitude was 46 38' S., longitude 1195 44' E. The foregoing particulars were published by her commander, Mr. Samuel Reid, in the Field of April 16, 1887.
The James Baines, in the Southern Ocean, June 17, 1856, did 418 miles in the 24 hours, latitude 430 31' 5., longitude 106s 15' E. On the 18th she logged for a time 21 knots. This may or may not be authentic, but the extract from her log is given below.
The Lightning is said to have averaged 18 knots for 24 hours -- that is, 432 miles in the 24 hours, and the James Baines, on a voyage to Australia, in 1855, is credited with 430 miles in the 24 hours. In the Field of April 3rd, 1909, Mr. W.H. Stoneham records that he was serving on board the full rigged ship Jura, 1198 tons, on her maiden voyage from Greenock to Calcutta, and when running her easting down she logged 420 miles, noon to noon. This was in December, 1875. In all cases nautical miles are meant, and not statute miles.
The Melbourne in a passage to Australia in 1876 averaged 300 miles for 17 consecutive days. Her greatest runs were 374, 365, and 352 miles per 24 hours.
The greatest speed ever entered in a log of a sailing ship was in the log of the James Baines, June 18th, 1856, 8:30 p.m.; it runs thus: "In all starboard stud sails, ship going 21 knots with main skysail set." (See "Time Allowance by Length.")
The term of work allotted to any of the men in a watch. Thus there is the spell at the helm termed "trick"; spell at the masthead to look out, spell at the pomp, &c. When a man's time comes to be relieved and the one who has to take his place lags, the former sings out "Spell 0!" (See "Trick.")
A fore-and-aft sail set with gaffs in square-rigged ships, as trysails on the fore and main mast.
Spider-Hoop or Spider Band.--
An iron band round the mast with iron belaying pins in it.
Marking on a bar of wood the distances that a curved line (say that of a frame) is from a straight line.
Spilling Lines.--
Ropes attached to sails for spilling them of wind in reefing or furling.
Spindle Jib.-- A jib topsail.
Spindle Model.-- A name given to a cylindrical model tapering at the ends.
Spindrift.-- See "Spoon Drift."
A jib-headed sail reaching from the topmast head to the deck, first introduced in yacht racing in a Royal London match, June 5, 1865, by Mr. William Gordon in the Niobe, and hence for some time termed a "Ni-ohs." The term "spinnaker" appears to have been applied to it as a kind of nickname, without "rhyme or reason." In 1866 Mr. Herbert Maudslay had a similar sail made for his yacht Sphinx, and it was first used in a match of the Royal Victoria Yacht Club at Ryde. The men called the yacht "Spinks," and hence the Itchen Ferry men nicknamed the sail a "spinker," as the year before they called it a Ni-ohs. From spinker came spinniker, or, as now written, "spinnaker." The word, as heard spoken by the crew of the Sphinx, was introduced into our nautical vocabulary by the late Mr. Dixon Kemp in describing a yacht match he sailed at Ryde on board the Sphinx, Aug. 15, 1866, and reported in the Field of Aug. 18. The word next appeared in print in Hunt's "Yachting Magazine" for September, 1866, in reference to the same match, the word having apparently been taken from the Field. The author first spelt the word "spinniker," and the "spinnaker" form was not introduced until 1869.
Prior to the introduction of the spinnaker a square sail and square topsail or raffee were used. The accompanying wood-cut (Fig. 99) was made in 1854, and represents the Phantom (cutter, 27 tons) in a match on the Thames. Sometimes a large jib was hoisted by a block lashed half way up the topmast, and boomed out by the tack (if allowed by the rules) when before the wind. These large head sails were, however, generally prohibited, and the following is a copy of the rule of the Royal Thames Yacht Club prior to 1865:
"That all yachts cutter rigged, and not carrying more than four fore and aft sails, be eligible to sail; but no jib to exceed 2ft. in the head nor to be hoisted above the mainmast head, neither shall it be boomed out." It was the rescinding of this role in 1865 that brought into existence the "Ni-ohs" or "spinniker." Mr. MacMullen, in his "Down Channel" (published in 1869), says that he had a similar sail in 1852; but booming out a big balloon or jib by the tack was always a common practice both on board yachts and fishing smacks.
Timber worked inside a vessel under the shelf in a fore-and-aft direction.
Spitfire.-- The smallest storm jib.
To join the ends of rope together by interweaving the untwisted strands. An eye splice is formed by interweaving the untwisted end of a rope in the lay of the strands.
Split Lug.--
A lugsail in two parts (Fig. 100); the fore part is sheeted like a foresail, and in going about the tack is never cast off, nor is the tack of the after part of the sail. The up and down lines on the sail show where it is divided and where the mast comes. To heave to, the slew (after cringle) of the fore part of the log would be hauled up to the mat or to windward of it, easing the mainsheet as required. The split lug is not in much favour. The standing lug (or even balance lug) and foresail rig has all the advantages of the split lug without so much yard forward of the mast and without the disadvantage of not being able to lower the fore part or foresail. The most that can be said in favour of the split lug is that it points out the advantages of a main and foresail in preference to one sail.
Spoken.-- Said when one ship has spoken to another by signal.
FIG 100
The bars of the steering wheel of a ship radiating from the boss. "To give her a spoke" is to move the wheel to the extent of the distance between spoke and spoke.
The platform ahead and abaft paddle wheels, usually outside the bulwarks, but sometimes enclosed.
Spoon Drift.-- Spray blown from the crests of waves.
A crosstree, a strut, a piece of wood or steel used to extend and give breadth and leverage to a stay such as the bobstay, topmast stay, masthead stay, or forward mast head stay or strut.stay. The cross trees act as a spreader to the topmast and masthead stays, the dolphin striker to the bobstay and the strut to the forward masthead or strut-stay. (See "Strut.")
Spring.-- A warp or hawser or rope.
Spring a Mast.-- To crack or splinter a mast.
Spring her Luff.--
To ease the weather tiller lines so that a vessel will luff to a free puff.
Sprit Sail.--
A four-sided sail stretched by a pole termed a sprit (Fig. 101). This is a time-honoured contrivance for setting a sail that has no boom, but a gaff is preferred if the sail has a boom.
Sprung.-- Damaged by a cross way cracking or splintering. (See "Spring a Mast.")
Spun Yarn -Small rope or cord used for serving, &c.
Said of sails when they are trimmed at right angles to the keel. A ship is said to have square yards when there is little difference between the lengths of upper and lower yards, or when her yards are very long.
Square the Yards.--
To brace them across at right angles to the keel. Square the boom is to haul it out at right angles to the keel.
A vessel is said to be squeezed when she is sailed very close to the wind in order that she may weather some point or object.
FIG 101.
Stains on Deck.--
Iron moulds, &c., can be removed from a deck by a solution of one part muriatic acid, three parts water.
A term variously employed; as to stand towards the shore, to stand E.S.E., and so on; to stand on without tacking. A sail is said to stand when it does not lift or shake.
Standard.-- See "Royal Standard."
Stand By.--
The order to make ready ; as "Stand by to lower the topsail!" "Let go the anchor!" &c.
Standing Part.--
The part permanently made fast to something, and not hauled upon.
Standing Rigging.-- The rigging that is kept permanently in its place.
Stand Up.--
A vessel is said to stand up well that carries her canvas without heeling much.
Starboard.-- The right hand side. The opposite to port.
The men and "watches" who compose the starboard watch. (See "Larbolins.")
Start, To.--
To move, as to slacken a sheet or tack. To start a butt is to cause a plank to start from its fastenings at its butt or end.
Started neither Tack nor Sheet.--
Said when a vessel sails a long course without a shift of wind, so that there is no occasion for her to alter the trim of her sails.
Starved of Wind.--
When a vessel is sailed so near the wind that she does not have enough of it, or feel the weight of it.
Slay, To.-- To tack.
Stay Rope.-- The luff or weather bolt rope of a jib or other sail.
Ropes for supporting masts and other spars. A vessel is said to be in stays when she is going through the operation of tacking. To stay is to tack. Strictly, when a ship is head to wind. Probably derived from the fact that a square rigged ship "stays" a long time before her bead pays off, and she is than "in stays." (See "Missing Stays.'')
Steady !-- An order to put the helm amidships, or not to move it about.
In a yacht the space between the after athwartship bulkhead of the main cabin and the athwartship bulkhead of the after cabin. (The latter is generally known as the ladies' cabin. Usually the term steerage is limited to the fore and aft passage and berths therein.
Steerage Way.--
When a vessel moves through the water so that she can be steered. In simply drifting or moving with the tide a vessel has no steerage way on, and cannot be steered; therefore steerage way means that a vessel relatively to the water moves and passes the water.
Steersman.-- A helmsman.
The upward inclination or rake which a bowsprit has, or which the plank sheer has forward. The running bowsprit has usually a steeve corresponding with the sheer forward; a standing bowsprit has generally considerably more on square rigged vessels.
The timber at the fore end of a vessel into which the ends of the plank are butted. To stem is to make headway, as against a current.
Stemson.-- A piece of timber worked inside the stem.
A piece of timber or metal to receive a vessel's mast, &c. To step is to put a thing into its step.
The name given to the three-cornered board aft in an open boat. (See "Stern Sheets.")
Stern Board.-- A movement of a vessel sternwards.
Stern Way.-- Moving astern: to make a stern board.
Stern Post.-- The strong timber to which the rudder is hung.
Stern Sheets.--
The seat in the aft end of a boat. Sometimes the three-cornered bottom board aft in a boat is termed the stern sheet. This board in' a yachts gig, in the bow or aft, is usually a wood grating. In small fishing boats the stern sheet is the platform on which the fisherman coils away his nets, lines, &c.
Stiff.-- Not easily healed ; having great stability.
Stock of an Anchor.-- The crossbar near the shackle.
Stocks.-- The framework upon which a vessel rests whilst she is being built.
To dive into a wave hollow. Generally an easy sort of pitching, caused by the undulation of waves or "swell."
A rope or lashing used to prevent a rope or chain surging or slipping, as cable stopper, rigging stoppers, &c. The latter is usually a short piece of rope put on as a kind of racking to prevent the rigging or its tackles rendering. A stopper is sometimes put on with a hitch, as shown by Fig. 103. (See "Racking.")
Yarns or short pieces of rope by which sails are secured when rolled up or stowed. Also the short lines by which sails are tied to yards when they are not laced.
Storm Anchor.-- See "Floating Anchor" and "Oil on Troubled Waters."
Storm Sails.-- The storm trysail and storm jib set in bad weather.
Stove in.-- Broken in.
To roll up. To furl a sail. To pack away any kind of article. A slang term telling a man to cease talking, as "Stow that."
Straight of Breadth.--
The distance where the breadth of a ship is equal or nearly equal amidships; now generally termed parallel length of middle body, because the two sides of a ship may be for some distance parallel to each other. A straight of breadth is seldom found in a yacht excepting in some long steam yachts ; these frequently are of the same breadth for some distance amid. ships. (See" Body" and "Dead Flat.")
Stroke or Streak.-- A length of plank of any breadth.
Strand.-- Yarns twisted together and they then make the parts or strands of a rope.
Stranded.-- Said of a rope when one or more of its strands have burst. Cast ashore.
Strands.-- Yarns when unlaid and used as "stops" are sometimes called strands.
Strap.-- See "Strop."
The direction of the flood tide and ebb tide. The tides in the Channel are usually referred to as the eastern stream for the flood and western stream for the ebb.
Stretch.-- A course sailed. Also the elasticity of canvas or rope, &c.
To lower, as to strike the topmast, &c. Also to strike the ground when sailing.
Striking Topsails.-- See "Saluting."
Strengthening strakes of plank, steel, or iron inside or outside a vessel's frame.
Strop or Strap.--
A sort of hoop made of rope yarn, wire, or iron, used to put round spars, blocks, &c. to hook tackles to. Fig. 102 shows a selvagee strop. (See also Selvagee.")
FIG 102
A selvagee strop is put on to a rope to hook a block or tackle to, as shown in Fig. 103. the whole of the strop being used up in the cross turns.
Another way of putting a strop on a block is shown in Fig. 104. The bights are passed through and through round the rope until used up; the tackle is then hooked to the bights as in Fig 103. A strop is usually put on a wire rope in this way, as it is less likely to slip.
A single spreader. A piece of wood or steel fitted on the foreside of the mast opposite the gaff jaws for the purpose of giving spread to a steel wire stay which supports the masthead, the "strut-stay" being the wire that goes from the masthead through or over the "strut" opposite the gaff jaws and down to the deck at the base of the mast to take the backward strain of the masthead and counteract the forward thrust of the gaff.
Strut-Stay.-- See "Strut."
Studding Sails.--
Sails set outside the courses, topsail, &c' in square rigged ships ; called by sailors "stu'n's'ls."
Small rope, and picked hemp or cotton waste, and timber. Also slang for sails as, "Give her the stuff," meaning more sail.
FIG 103
Surge.-- When a rope renders round a belaying pin, &c.
Swansea Pilot Boats.--
A very snugly rigged kind of schooner met with in the Bristol Channel. The rig comprises mainmast, foremast, and running bowsprit; the mainmast is stepped exactly in the middle of the boat, and has a great rake aft, so that the head of the mast plumbs over the after part of the cockpit, two sheaves are cut in it, through which the halyards are rove. The foremast is upright, with sheaves like the mainmast, and a block on the fore part under the sheave holes for the jib halyards. These masts require no rigging or stays, and are pole masted without )out any topmasts. The gaffs are short, being for a boat of 25 to 30 tons only about 6ft. long, and only require one halyard. One end of the halyard is spliced to a single block ; the other
FIG. 104.
end being passed over the first sheave in the mast, then through a single block, which is booked on to the gaff, and finally through the upper sheave in the mast. This end is belayed. A purchase is formed by a rope passed through the block on the halyard and through a block on deck. The fore halyards are rigged the same way, and the jib halyards are of the ordinary kind. The sails consist of mainsail, foresail, and jib ; the two former being laced
FIG 105
to the mast. These sails can be taken in in about one minute and a half, and set in about two and a half. The outhaul of the jib is passed under a sheave on the stem, and acts as a bobstay; there are no shrouds to bow sprit. The advantages of this rig are said to be that one man can handle a boat of 25 tons himself, and the boats are equally as handy with the foresail as without it, likewise the mainsail. They will stay or do anything either way, and with only the foresail and jib a boat can be sailed on a wind. (Fig. 105.)


Long waves with unbroken crest:, usually met with after heavy winds have subsided.
A long bend. To sweep is to impel by sweeps or large oars; formerly, vessels as large as 300 tons used sweeps, and by hard work could make three knots an hour. Sweeps are not permitted in yacht racing.
Sweeps.-- Large oars.
Swig, To.--
The fall of a tackle is put under a cleat or pin, and is held firmly by one or more of the crew; another man (or man) then takes hold of the part of the fall between the cleat and the block and throws his whole weight on it; as he comes up the other hand takes in the slack. By swigging on a tackle a couple of hands can often get in all that is required, where by steady hauling they might not have moved the blocks an inch. To drink.
If a person who cannot swim falls overboard, be should turn his face upwards towards the sky, and press his chest forward; he cannot then sink. He should keep the legs down as much as possible, and the mouth firmly shut. He should keep composed, and strike out slowly with the hand. A person could soon learn to swim by walking into the water breast high, and then striking out, holding the face well up towards the sky. It should be always borne in mind that the human body is somewhat lighter bulk for bulk than water ; consequently a piece will appear above water until some of the fluid is swallowed. The proper thing to do is, therefore, to see that the piece of the body which floats out of the water is the face part, so that breathing can take place.
Swivel Hook.-- A hook that revolves by a pivot inserted in a socket and clinched.





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