Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and Architecture

(11th and final edition, 1913)

C: Cable - Check.


A rope or chain by which a vessel is held at anchor.

The length for a cable, according to the Admiralty, is 120 fathoms. The length of a cable for a yacht varies from 45 fathoms for a 10-tonner to 150 for a 300-tonner. A yacht of 60 tons should, however, have at least 75 fathoms.
Cable's Length.--

A measure of one-tenth of a sea mile, 600 feet, 101 fathoms, or 203 yards.



The cooking room or kitchen of a merchantman. Also the "galley fire" or cooking stove of a yacht or ether vessel.


Cage Buoy.--

A buoy with an iron framework upon the top. Formerly "cages" were put on poles in intricate channels, and for two hours about the time of high water at night fires were lighted in them.


Call.-- See "Boatswain."



An instrument consisting of a "straight edge" beam with two legs, used for measuring the breadth of yachts, packages of merchandise, &c. Metal bowlegged compasses called callipers are used for measuring the diameter of spars.



Stillness of the air. Stillness or smoothness of the sea. An unrippled sea. Dead calm, stark calm, flat calm, clock calm, glass calm, glass smooth sea, &c.



When the keel of a vessel has its ends lower than its middle, thus xxx . Opposed to rockered.



A kind of boat used in many parts of the world and distinct from row boats, as they are propelled by paddles, with the crew facing forward. There are paddles of one blade and two blades. Some canoes carry many occupants, some only one. They are variously built and usually sharp ended.


Canoe Hatch.--

The double lines C are carlines, supposed to be seen through the hatch which is screwed to the two doffed ones (Fig. 11); the ends of the latter are made to slide in a groove in the coamings. The middle carline is fastened to the deck and prevents the latter sliding too far, and stops the water getting into the well should any find its way under the hatch carline. A channel should be made round the rim of the well so that the person sitting therein could fit an apron or waterproof into it after the fashion of the Esquimaux.


Fig. 11

A preferable plan is to have the hatch and the frame on which it slides separate, so that it will fit over the rabbets round the coamings; then if the canoe upsets, the hatch will float off and free the canoeist.
Mr. Redo Turner recommends the following plan for fastening down a canoe hatch :
A is a metal plate, screwed to hatch or door, and projecting somewhat beyond the edge of hatch, and in the projecting edge of it has a slot cut. (See Figs. 12, 13, 14, 15.)

Fig. 12.

B is a screw at one end, and on this end works a butterfly nut (C) (Figs. 12, 13, 14) the other has two short arms at right angles to the upper part (see Figs. 12, 13, 14) which short arms are hinged at D (Fig. 13), and B moves freely when the butterfly nut C is unscrewed.

Fig. 13

To open a hatch which has been fitted with this arrangement, the two butterfly nuts C must be unscrewed, and B allowed to fall down out of the way, and the hatch can then be lifted off. To fasten the hatch down B must be turned up, and the butterfly nut C screws down tight.
N.B. There should be two or more of this arrangement on hatch, according to the size, viz., one on each side.

Fig. 14.

Fig. 14 is the same plan, except that B is fixed upright, and the plate A is centred on E, and works horizontally. (See dotted lines of Fig. 14.)


Fig. 15 (goes with Fig. 12 and 13.)


Cant Frames.--
The frame in the bow and quarter of a vessel that are not square to the keel.


The weight of canvas used by Messrs. Lapthorn and Ratsey for yachts' sails is as follows :


Canvas Back.--

A term applied to boats covered with canvas to keep out the seas; also applied to yacht sailors who are fond of a salting.

Canvasback Duck.--

A wild duck common in America, and highly esteemed for the table.

Canvas Boats.--

These are boats made of canvas and used by the Galway fishermen, particularly at Dingle. The ribs of the boats are made of wood hoop, such as may be got off casks ; outside the ribs battens are nailed in a fore-and-aft direction; a keel to which the ribs are also nailed is rounded up at the ends to form stem and stern post. The canvas is about two feet wide, and runs fore-and-aft. There is an inwale and gunwale as usual at the top of the ribs, the canvas going between the two. These boats are usually 20ft. by 4ft. They are very light, one man carrying them easily. They are manned by a crew of four, each man using a pair of oars. A lug sail is carried off the wind. These boats get through a great deal of rough water by aid of the eight oars they are propelled by.
I. The following directions for making canvas boats have been carefully compiled :--
For the keel get a piece of larch 15ft. long, 2-1/2in. wide, and 2in. deep ; the stem and stern posts, with rake according to fancy, may be halved into the keel; these pieces must be bevelled off from the width of the keel, so as to have a cutwater of about half an inch, which will be sharp enough. Next get three good heavy blocks of wood, and lay them four feet apart in the place where you are going to build your boat; then take the keel with the stem and stern posts already in, and fit it perfectly true on the said blocks, using a spirit level for the purpose. The easiest temporary way of fastening the keel down is to nail short pieces of wood firmly to the blocks, just wide enough apart for the keel to jam between them, and drive a small nail through these pieces into the keel on each side; this will keep all firm, and prevent the keel from moving or twisting as you proceed with other work; it is an important point, and must not be omitted.
This done, the next thing is to get a good stout spar, about 2in. or 3in. square, and longer than the boat; tack this on the top of the stem and stern posts; as it is necessary that this fore-and-aft piece should be stayed stiffly in its position, this can easily be done by tacking some rough pieces to it here and there, and nailing the other ends to the rafters of your shed. The uses of this spar are many and obvious. You will thus get your stem and stern posts true, and it will be useful afterwards to keep the moulds in their places, and for shoring out the timbers and ribbands or battens so as to keep them shapely to the eye as the work proceeds.
Your next business is to make what shipwrights call "the moulds," which is to give the shape, beam, and depth. To make the moulds, first strike it out full size with a piece of chalk on the floor of some room. For a boat 15ft. in length, the width ought to be at least 4ft., the depth not less than 2ft. Do not let the curve of the sides be too sharp, but give her a good hard bilge and a flattish bottom. Having made your moulds to the exact shape of the pattern chalked on the floor, nail a thin strip of wood across the upper (gunwale) ends, which will keep them stiff and true; next take the moulds and nail them on the keel in their proper places, fastening it above to the fore-and-aft piece.
The moulds being now firmly fixed in their places, you may proceed to what in other boats would be called the planking. Saw out some thin strips of larch, about 20ft. long, 1in. wide, and a quarter of an inch thick. Six of these on each side would be sufficient. Having chamfered off a little from one of the ends to make it fit the stem of the boat, fasten it with two small copper nails ; carry the ribband in your hand, and humour it gently round the moulds tacking it slightly there, and bring it on to the sternpost. You will probably find your piece too long; mark the required length, cut, and nail it in its place. In laying on these ribbands you must begin at the bottom of the boat, and work up.
Having fixed your ribband both sides, get two long pieces the same width, only double the thickness, for gunwales, and fix them; fit a breast hook stem and stern, and rivet the gunwales securely to them. Saw out a lot of thin stuff for ribs, half an inch wide, and about the eighth of an inch thick; they will bend easily, and will not require steaming. Put these on about six inches apart, and rivet them to the battens.
Next put in your thwarts, fixing them well down in the bottom of the boat, which will make her safer, the weight being near the keel. Get some copper, galvanised iron, or oak knees, with one leg long enough to reach from the gunwale down to the seat; rivet this well to the battens and gunwale, and nail the other part on the seat; there should be four to each thwart, as they help to strengthen the boat immensely. You may now take your boat off the stocks, and she will be ready for the next operation.
Get some good new sail canvas, not too stout, and cover one side at a time ; tack the edge of the canvas all along the bottom of the keel and pull it to the shape of the boat, tacking it neatly to the sides of the stem and stern posts. Where you find it does not sit well, you may sometimes avoid cutting by folding the spare stuff, and, with a sailor's needle and palm, sew it to the main body of the canvas. Do this on a warm day, as the canvas will then be quite supple, and more easy to handle.
Nail a strip of wood half an inch thick on the bottom of the keel to keep all snug, and as an extra security drive a row of tacks through the canvas on each side of the keel. You must be careful to nail over the canvas some narrow strips of wood, as "bilge pieces," where you see she would take the ground when lying on her side, otherwise the pulling and dragging over the sand in launching, &c., would quickly wear the canvas through. With care, and with an extra coat of paint now and then, a boat of this sort will last nine or ten years.
The following suggestions will be found effective to prevent the puckering of the canvas skin of the proposed boat. A framework of 4ft. beam will require about three breadths of canvas on each side, and waste should be avoided by preparing paper patterns by which to cut out the canvas. To do this cut some old newspapers to the width of the canvas, and paste sufficient pieces together end to end to give the required length of the boat. Turn the frame of the boat upside down, and stay it in a horizontal position and upright. Lay the edge of the paper on the flat keel along the middle, place weights upon it and measure off the distances from the middle line across the paper on the ribs, so as to keep the breadths horizontal from the middle to the stern and bow of the boat. Towards the bow and stern the breadths will be of course materially reduced. Remove the paper on to the floor, and draw a line from point to point marked on the paper at the crossings of the timbers.
From this pattern you can easily cut out the two canvas strakes, one for each side of the boat against the keel, which are called the garboards. Replace the pattern ; but, before doing so, mark the lower edge for the second breadth of paper, and, setting off the distances along the ribs to the width of the first pattern, you will be able to mark it out and cut it as the previous one. A double seam will be better than a single, as it will give great additional strength to the canvas, and the width of an inch and an eighth should be allowed for it. The lower edge of the third breadth can now be marked and cut out by the upper edge of the second, and if found to reach the gunwale, the top edge may be left uncut until the canvas is drawn over the framework. In applying the canvas to the keel, put plenty of thick paint on the inside to half the breadth of the keel, and nail the selvedge with copper tacks along the middle line; then screw on with brass screws, at 6-inch intervals, a piece of elm plank 3/8 of an inch thick, and exactly the same width and length as the keel. Between the 6-inch intervals drive copper tacks. A small strip of copper at the forefoot and heel will prevent this shoeing, as it is called, from catching in anything.
To make a good finish at stem and stern, cut out the thickness of the stem and sternpost to the eighth of an inch from top to bottom, as in an ordinary boat, which will form a groove or rabbet, and when you come to this part fold the end of the canvas hack. This will give additional strength for the nails, and at the same time make a very snug finish.


A diagonal-framed canvas boat built in 1841 was in use for thirty years. The canvas was stout, and it was very thickly painted when dry, and not wetted, as is frequently the case, to prevent the absorption of paint. The boat was built on three moulds, the transom or stern board (for she is not canoe-formed at the stern) being one mould, the midship mould the second, and a third equidistant between it and the bow. An inner keel or kelson having been connected with the stem and sternposts by mortices, this kelson was let into the moulds its own thickness, 1in., and secured.


The moulds were steadied in their positions by the gunwales, of 1/2-in. by 2in. yellow pine, nailed to the stern and transom board. The frame of yellow pine, 3/16in. by 7/8in., was then nailed on diagonally, leaving openings of 2-1/2-in. wide where crossing each other. The canvas, put on lengthways, was cut so as to run along the framework parallel with the kelson on each side; and the seams were sewn double, as sails are ordinarily made by sailmakers. There is one bottom and two side breadths, and, therefore, no join along the kelson. The canvas turns in over the gunwale, and is secured by a strip of the same wood. The framework is nailed with copper tacks. The canvas, being so well supported, is perfectly rigid, and the boat appears likely to last a number of years. See "Collapsible Boats."
Canvas Canoes.--
Such a boat (Fig. 16) was built by Capt. J. Richards, R.N., in 1878, for the river Avon, 12ft. long, 3ft. wide, and 15in. in depth. She has a frame of American elm, fastened with rove and clench copper nails and wire ; her floor is nearly flat, formed of 3/4-in. white pine wood, lined inside with sheets of cork to fill up the spaces between the timbers, and form a level and solid platform within. Above the floor and outside the timbers (which are 6in. apart, and twenty-three in number), instead of the planking of an ordinary boat, there are stout fore-and-aft stringers of American elm three inches apart, outside all of which is stretched the thick No. 1 canvas skin of the outer boat. The principal materials required are keel of 1in. square ash ; gunwale, 1in square ash ; crosspieces of gunwales, 1in. square ash ; keel chafing pieces, 3/4-in by 1/2-in. ash ; fore-and-aft stringers, 1/2-in. by 1/4-in.; bilge stringers, 3/4-in by 1/2-in. ; twenty-three timbers, 3/4-in. square.
Within this structure and securely attached to it, although quite distinct from it, there is an inner canvas boat, 8ft. long and 2ft. wide (having a separate gunwale), in which the crew sit on the floor.
The deck space between the gunwale and coaming is entirely covered in by canvas, supported on a strong framework of wood and cane; and, being under ordinary circumstances quite secure from wet, was intended by Capt. Richards for the stowage of bedding, clothes, and provisions of the crew.

FIG. 16.

The gunwale and the coaming are strongly braced together, and the ends of the gunwale are additionally secured to the stem and sternpost by strong iron plates, with eyebolts above, in which are rove stout ropes, to moor the boat with when afloat, or suspend her to trees like a hammock whenever her crew may desire to sleep in that position.
The coracle is fitted with a couple of small light wheels and iron axle (weighing only about 12lb., and movable at pleasure in about a couple of minutes), which when attached to her keel afford her the locomotive advantages of a porter's truck.
The twelve-foot coracle weighs about 90lb., and draws three inches of water when light; but, with her crew of two men and her gear on board, she drew five inches forward and seven aft. An inch of this, however, is due to her false keel, which, with bilge pieces, give some lateral resistance when under sail in a seaway.
The entire structure was well saturated with boiled linseed oil, and then painted.
The inner boat can be disengaged at the gunwale, and removed altogether in about four minutes. One of the principal advantages claimed for this "double-shell boat" consists in the fact that the outer boat may be stove in without rendering her unserviceable or wetting her crew; and so long as the outer boat is intact, a sea may be accidentally shipped in the inner boat without dangerously affecting the stability of the vessel; and should both the outer and inner boats be swamped with water, the cork floor and cushions will, nevertheless, still afford her the properties of a life buoy sufficient for her crew. (See "Coracle Life boat.")
The builders of these boats were Messrs. Hill, Canon's Marsh, Bristol.
Price 6£ 10s. Carriage by rail 1d. per mile.



A figure of 8 iron band fitted to the masthead, bowsprit end, for jib boom, &c. Sometimes the yoke is termed the lower cap.

Capful of Wind.-- A puff of wind soon passing away.



A mechanical contrivance for raising the anchor, said to have been introduced in Queen Elizabeth's reign. Sir Walter Raleigh says: "The shape of our ships have been greatly bettered of late. We have contrived the striking of the topmast, added the chain pump, devised studding sails, top gallant sails, sprit sails, and topsails. We have also lengthened our cables, and contrived weighing of the anchor by the capstan." Capstans very compact ill form are now made for yachts instead of the cumbrous windlass. The capstans most generally in use on board yachts are those manufactured by Reid and Co., Paisley; Cantelo, Southampton; W. White and Sons, Vectis Works, Cowes; Atkey, Cowes; Harfield and Co., Mansion House Buildings, E.C.; Blake and Sons, Gosport; and Simpson and Strickland, Dartmouth. The Reid, Cantelo, White, and Atkey capstan have winch heads so that they can be used without capstan bars.



FIG 17.



Capstan Bar.--

Bars of wood by which the capstan is turned, and so made to wind up the anchor or raise any weight.

Capstan Driven by a Motor.--

The practical difficulty about applying an ordinary motor engine to a capstan with a common clutch gearing is that the motor runs at a high speed, and the sudden violent strain coming on the chain from the capstan with great force and shock is apt to break down the motor. Capt. E. du Boulay has invented a system which it is claimed will overcome this difficulty by means of a reducing gear which the firm, Thellusson and Co., Cowes, have patented. The illustration we give (Fig. 17) of the arrangement shows how it can be applied to a vessel. M is the main motor, driving the capstan C through the reducing gear B and shafting S. The use of the capstan in the ordinary way by hand is not interfered with. The makers of this motor capstan are Pascall and Atkey, the yacht fitters, of Cowes, and they have fitted one of them to a 17-ton fishing yacht which was built at Southampton.

Capstan for a Trawl.--

A capstan for a trawl for a yacht of twenty or more tons is made at the Mount's Bay Foundry, Cornwall.

Card.-- The dial of a compass upon which the points are marked.


Cardinal Points.-- The compass points, E., W., N., and S.


Careen.-- To heel, to list, to haul over for cleaning the bottom.



Pieces of timber fitted between the deck beams in a fore-and-aft direction.

Carry Away.-- The breakage of a spar, rope, &c.


Carry Canvas.--

A vessel is said to carry her canvas well if she does not heel much in strong breezes.

Carvel Built.--

Built with the plank flush edge to edge, and the seams caulked and payed.


Said of a ship when she fills on one tack or the other after being head to wind. Used generally on getting under way, as cast to port, &c. The word is variously used, as to cast anchor, to cast off a rope.


A small raft common in the East Indies. A double boat in use in America.

Cat Block.-- The block used in catting the anchor.


Cat Boat.-- A boat with one sail, like a Una boat.


Catch a Turn.--

To take a turn quickly with a rope round a belaying pin, or bitt, or cavel.


Timber or iron projection from the how of a vessel by which the anchor is hoisted up to the rail, after it has been weighed to the hawse pipe.


In calms, when the water is rippled here and there with passing airs of wind, it is said to be scratched by catspaws. A "catspaw" is also a bight doubled in a rope.

Caulking.-- Driving oakum into the seams of a vessel. (See "Marine Glue.")


Caulking Iron.--

A kind of blunt chisel used for driving oakum into the seams.

Caustic Soda.--

A mixture of three parts of caustic soda to two of unslacked lime is a good detergent. The soda is boiled in the water, and then the lime added. The mixture should be applied hot, and be of the consistency of thick whitewash. In applying it great care should be exercised so as not to allow it to touch the hands. A brush of vegetable fibre should be used, as the composition will destroy hair. Caustic soda is used for cleaning off old paint or varnish; the mixture should be put on nine or ten hours before it is scraped off if a very clean job is desired. If it is a deck that has to be cleaned it is desirable to damp it with fresh water before an application of the mixture; hence it is a good plan to apply it on a dewy morning. Mahogany should not be cleaned with this compound, which turns it black. A mixture of two parts soda and one part soap, simmered together and applied hot, is sometimes used.

Carson's "Detergent" (La Belle Savoyard, London), is an excellent substitute for caustic soda, but care should be taken in using it for decks, as it injuriously affects marine glue. (See also "Sooji Mooji.")


Cavel (sometimes spelt kavel or kevel).--

Stout pieces of timber fixed horizontally to the stanchions on bitts for belaying ropes to.


The inside planking of a vessel.

FIG 18.

Centre-Board (a Temporary).--

Make a 1/4-in. plate of the shape of either of those in the sketch (Fig. 18) about one-third of the length of the boat. Three bolts will be on the upper edge of the board; the centre bolt will have a thread longer than the other two, and protrude through the keel. When the plate is fitted under the keel, it will be held tight to the keel by a thumb nut on the centre bolt. To unship the board when in davits or in shallow water unscrew the thumb nut and release the plate. A cork will be put into the bolt hole. Of course the plate cannot be shifted when the boat is afloat in deep water. It would be unsafe to sail about in shallow water with such a contrivance; nor should the boat under any circumstances be allowed to take the ground with the board fixed.

Another form of temporary board (Fig. 19) has been fitted to an ordinary boat, 18ft long. It consists of a board, to which are affixed iron clamps on either side, which admit of the main keel being inserted between them; through these are passed bolts with nuts, which firmly hold the two keels together.


FIG. 19.


The dimensions of a board for an 18ft boat are 6ft. long, 1ft. 10in. deep, and 1-1/2in. thick. The board is to be about 1ft. 6in. shorter on its under side than on its top side, the fore end sloping aft, and the aft end sloping forward; but the slope at the fore end is nearly double that at the aft end.
Place the centre of the board a trifle in advance of the centre of the main keel; it can be fixed in five minutes when the boat is in the davits; only one word of caution is necessary, that is, not to tow her with the keel on behind the yacht when sailing, or in all probability she will take a sheer out and capsize.
This plan was introduced by Mr. G. H. Harrison, of the Siesta schooner; but it is not quite so good as the iron plate just described, because it cannot be unfitted or released whilst the boat is afloat; and, moreover, a triangular shape is to be preferred.


Centre-board (deflecting).--

All boards of a fixed pattern are more or less in the way, and "the American Goodrich deflecting centre-board" (Fig. 20) was invented to do away with all inboard casing and make a board of less draught accomplish as much as a deep one could. It is an ingenious, but rather unpractical, arrangement, not to be recommended.
The "board" consists of a thin sheet of stiff metal, swung to the keel by a long binge, and can be rotated at will by applying force to a lever at the after end. The metal plate is 30in. long and 9in. deep for canoes, and 36in. long with 10in. depth adapted for row-boats and general use. The end of the shaft ships into a small lug socket on the keel. It is held in place by turning up a screw in the back of the after box, driving the forward end home into the lug. To remove or unship, it is only necessary to back out the screw, draw hack the board until the shaft drops out of the forward lug, then pull forward until clear of the box also. To control the angular position of the blade, a lever is introduced inside the canoe. The top of the after box has an opening with a forked slide slipping over the slot. This slide is pushed clear, the lever then slipped into the middle hole of three in the shaft end. If the board is to be kept plumb, draw to the forked slide, so that the prongs grasp and hold the lever up and down. Leakage is prevented by having the shaft closely fit in the box. When so nipped, the blade is vertical, the same as is the case with an ordinary centre-board, and in this condition the canoe is prepared to sail in light airs, or before the wind, as it is impossible to trice up the blade. Being small, very thin, and with sides as smooth as you wish to finish them, no appreciable resistance will be experienced.


FIG 20.


When heeling to a press of sail, or in beating up against the wind, the angle of the blade may be changed quickly to suit the demands of each tack. This is effected by shoving hack the forked slide, and then pushing the lever up to windward, retaining it there by a small hook and eye supplied for the purpose. When going about, throw off the hook moves in a sideways direction; thus, an ardent pressure would be brought upon the upper side of the lee bilge keel, and this pressure would assist in a small degree in heeling the vessel.


Fig. 21

Centre-plate (dagger).--
This portable plate (see Fig. 21) is in much use in America for very small shallow boats and canoes.


Centre-plates (the strains and stresses of).--

Fig. 22 shows a boat heeled by a force represented by the arrow A, and this force also drives the vessel to leeward in the direction of the arrow. The motion in this direction is resisted, more or less, by the pressure of water on the hull and on the board B. This pressure is represented by the arrows CC. If, now, for the board we substitute a heavy metal plate, it is obvious that the weight of this D plate will act in the direction of the arrow E (Fig. 23).

The stress of the plate D acts in an exactly opposite direction to time board B. But, supposing the weight D exactly balanced the pressure CC on B, the board would have no straining effect whatever, but would rest free in its case as represented by F (Fig. 24).

This condition of equilibrium in only likely to endure momentarily, but the illustrations show how a heavy board may tend to reduce the strains on the keel and case. Of course the worst strains occur when a vessel is rolling in a seaway, whether she be before the wind or on a wind; and often it has been found dangerous to keep a board lowered when the vessel is hove-to, owing to the pressure set up by CC, which is much greater when a vessel is hove-to than it is when she is making high speed through the water ; and also owing to the rolling, which is always more or less apparent in disturbed water.

At the time the inquiry was held into the loss of the Captain someone raised the question as to whether keels and bilge keels would add to stiffness under canvas ; it was properly pointed out at this inquiry that, so far as keels or bilge keels of wood are concerned, they tend to decrease statical stability, but on account of the resistance they offer to motion in the water they would check the sudden inclination of the vessel due to a sudden application of wind force by increasing time "amount of work to be done" in heeling ; in other words, they would increase the dynamical stability. However, as further pointed out at the inquiry, the lee bilge keel will have a tendency, when the vessel is sailing with a steady wind pressure, to cause an increase of heel beyond that due to the actual pressure on the sails. A vessel when sailing with the wind abeam or forward of the beam, makes more or less leeway, or moves in a sideways direction; thus, an ardent pressure would be brought upon the upper side of the lee bilge keel, and this pressure would assist in a small degree in heeling the vessel.







It is quite a common belief that a centreboard, irrespective of its weight, somehow increases stiffness; but such is not the case. In is also sometimes thought that a metal centreplate will enable a broad, shallow boat to carry as much canvas as can be got on her. This is a very great mistake, and we know from two or three examples that the effect of a centre-plate weighing nearly half a ton on a 25ft. boat, with a 11ft. beam, and about 1ft. 9in. draught amidships, is extremely small on the stability ; and a "skimming dish," if fitted with a metal centre-plate, could not in consequence dispense with her live ballast "hiking" out on the weather gunwale.

Certificate.-- See "Master's Certificate."


Chain Locker.--

The compartment in the bold of a vessel wherein the mooring chain is stowed.

Chain Pipe.--

Iron pipe on the deck through which the cables pass into the lockers.

Chain Plates.--

Iron braces on the side of a ship to which the shrouds are attached with the screw lanyards of the rigging above.

Challenge Cups.--

Cups which when won subject the yacht to be challenged to race for it again. Unless there is any stipulation to the contrary, a yacht can be altered during the period she holds the cup and still be eligible to defend it.

Channel Deep.--

Said of a yacht when she is heeled over until her lee channels are under water.

Channel Plates.--

Braces secured to the sides of vessels and extended by pieces of timber termed channels. The rigging screws are shackled to the channel plates.


Originally strong pieces of timber fixed on the side of a ship inside the chain plates to give greater spread to the rigging. The timber is now superseded by steel construction.

During the existence of the old tonnage rule up to 1887 the channels of yachts were much increased in width in order to give the necessary spread to the rigging in consequence of the narrowness of the hull compared with the height of the mast. But even with this extra spread it was found difficult to keep the mast in its place ; and in fact it could not have been done, but for the steel wire rope shrouds. These were set up bar taut and the drift of lanyard between the dead eyes was very short compared with what it once was.

From 1893 until 1910, when yachts were given more beam, outside channels were generally dispensed with altogether.

In some of the latest yachts (1911, 1912) owing to their great height of sail plan in proportion to their beam, there has been a tendency to return to the old practice of building outside channels. The new channels, to which powerful steel rigging screws holding the wire shrouds are attached, are scientifically constructed of steel.


Check, To.--

To check a sheet is to ease it a little. To check a vessel's way as by a warp, or by backing a sail. To check a tide is to keep a vessel from her course, in order to allow for the influence or drift of a tide. A vessel is said to check the tide when it throws her to windward. To check a vessel with the helm is to prevent her altering her course. (See "To Meet.")

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